Mammalian pheromones are widely accepted but poorly understood. Most studies have used the laboratory mouse but some have studied tigers and lions, both in the wild and in captivity. The lion has emerged as unique insofar as the lion produces pheromones from two sources: the lion mane and the lion marking fluid (spray). The presence of pheromones in lion mane was a relatively recent discovery. In this review of the literature, I have compared the volatile organic compounds found in lion marking fluid and lion mane hair. Based on this comparison I have determined the most likely candidate to represent the pheromone responsible for sexual attraction in the lion. A thorough review of the literature has revealed no similar studies.