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      After one year of COVID-19 Pandemic and Hundreds of Suggested Drugs, Will Cathepsin L Inhibitors be the Solution?

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      ScienceOpen Preprints
      ScienceOpen
      COVID-19, Lactoferrin , Bromelain, Quercetin, Zinc, Metformin, Docking, Viral Fusion, SARS-CoV-2, Cathepsin L
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            Summary

            Cathepsin L and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase are crucial in terms of the endocytosis by cleaving the spike protein, which permits viral membrane fusion with endosomal membrane, and succeeded by the releasing of viral genome to the host cell. Thereby, inhibition of cathepsin L may be advantageous in terms of decreasing infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Coordinate inhibition of multiple Cts and lysosomal function by different drugs and biological agents might be of value for some purposes such as parasite or viral infections and anti-neoplastic applications. It has been found that Zn 2+ deficiency or dysregulation leads to an exaggerated activity of Cysteine cathepsin increasing the autoimmune/inflammatory response. At this purpose Zn 2+ metal can be safely combined with a drug that increases the anti-proteolytic effect of endogenous Zn 2+ lowering the excessive activity of some CysCts. Biguanide derivatives complex with Zn 2+ have been found to be promising inhibitors of CysCts protease reactions. Molecular docking studies of Cathepsin L Inhibited by Metformin-Zn+2 complex have been performed showing two strong key interactions ( Cys-25&His-163) and we identified a novel an extra H-bond with Asp-163 compared to the co-crystallized Zn +2 (PDB ID 4axl).

            Abstract

            Cysteine cathepsins are defined as lysosomal enzymes which are member of the papain family. Cysteine cathepsins (Cts) prevalently exist in whole organisms varying from prokaryotes to mammals and possess in their active site greatly conserved residue of cysteine. Cts are engaged in the digestion of cellular protein, activation of zymogen, and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM). Host cells are entered by SARS-CoV-2 via endocytosis. Cathepsin L and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase are crucial in terms of the endocytosis by cleaving the spike protein, which permits viral membrane fusion with endosomal membrane, and succeeded by the releasing of viral genome to the host cell. Thereby, inhibition of cathepsin L may be advantageous in terms of decreasing infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Coordinate inhibition of multiple Cts and lysosomal function by different drugs and biological agents might be of value for some purposes such as parasite or viral infections and anti-neoplastic applications. It has been found that Zn 2+ deficiency or dysregulation leads to an exaggerated activity of Cysteine cathepsin increasing the autoimmune/inflammatory response. At this purpose Zn 2+ metal can be safely combined with a drug that increases the anti-proteolytic effect of endogenous Zn 2+ lowering the excessive activity of some CysCts. Biguanide derivatives complex with Zn 2+ have been found to be promising inhibitors of CysCts protease reactions. Molecular docking studies of Cathepsin L Inhibited by Metformin-Zn+2 complex have been performed showing two strong key interactions ( Cys-25&His-163) and an extra H-bond with Asp-163 compared to the co-crystallized Zn +2 (PDB ID 4axl).

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ScienceOpen Preprints
            ScienceOpen
            22 April 2021
            Affiliations
            [1 ] Tuberculosis program, Public Health department , First health Cluster, Ministry of Health , Saudia Arabia
            Article
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPAJTMC.v1
            db6c08f9-31de-40eb-bdb9-f43addc4c2b1

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

            Funding
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            The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the repository: https://zenodo.org/record/4682214#.YIFPXuszbct
            Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
            COVID-19,Lactoferrin ,Bromelain,Quercetin,Zinc,Cathepsin L,Metformin,Docking,Viral Fusion,SARS-CoV-2

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