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      The Effect of Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation on the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome

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      Metabolic syndrome, chronic Inflammation
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            Abstract

            It is well accepted that metabolic syndrome (MS) increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), stroke and cancer [1] . Recently, the chronic inflammatory condition that often accompanies the MS has been implicated as a major factor both in the installation of the MS itself and its associated pathophysiological consequences [2] . However, the inflammatory state that accompanies the MS does not completely fit into the classical definition of acute or chronic inflammation, as it is not accompanied by infection; there is no massive tissue injury and the dimension of the inflammatory activation is also not large. So, it is often called low-grade chronic inflammation or meta-inflammation , meaning metabolically-triggered inflammation [3] . Several studies support the concept that a proinflammatory state is a component of the MS because of the strong association of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) with MS-risk factors and high CRP levels impart risk for major coronary events beyond that imparted by the other metabolic risk factors. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) has been developed and used as a marker to predict coronary vascular diseases in the MS and it was recently used as a predictor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in correlation with serum markers that indicated lipid and glucose metabolism. However, the reasons for a link between inflammation and MS are not fully understood. One explanation may be that adipose tissue in obese people with MS releases increased amounts of cytokines into the circulation which in turn accounts for a greater production of CRP by the liver. Another possibility is that insulin resistance (IRalone is responsible for higher production of cytokines. Regardless of the mechanism, the finding that patients with MS exhibit characteristics of a proinflammatory state provide a new and exciting connection between inflammation and metabolic processes.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ScienceOpen Preprints
            ScienceOpen
            21 November 2020
            Affiliations
            [1 ] PHYSIOLOGY,FACULTY OF SCIENCE // AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY // ABBASIA.CAIRO//EGYPT
            Article
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPBGBYN.v1
            52f03775-f2e2-418f-a4fc-f330f256934e

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .


            The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
            Medicine
            Metabolic syndrome, chronic Inflammation

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