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      Determining the Magnitude of Wind Loads on Structures in Kenya according to the Eurocodes


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      Eurocodes, Wind, Kenya, Economic, Design, Gusts, CP3

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          This study provided guidance on the use of existing wind data in Kenya with the Eurocodes despite the absence of the local national annexes. The determination of wind loads in the structural design of buildings according to the Eurocode Standard KS EN 1991-1-4:2005 had several challenges. The code of practice commonly used in Kenya was CP3-Chapter V-2:1972 that used the three-second gust duration. This gust duration resulted in higher magnitudes of wind loads that ended up making the structures unnecessarily robust and uneconomical. Using the Eurocodes had the promise of achieving more economical designs because it used the 10-minute gust duration. The 10-minute gust duration resulted in typically lower magnitudes of wind loads than the three-second gust duration for the same wind speed. Kenya adopted the Eurocodes in September 2012 but had not yet developed its national annexes opting instead to use the UK National Annexes. The UK National Annexes were applicable to Kenya in some scenarios but not in others such as wind loading. The lack of the Kenya National Annexes led to difficulties in the adoption of the Eurocodes. This paper outlined a procedure in which the existing wind data given in three-second gusts could be converted to 10-minute wind speeds. Once converted, the method described in the UK National Annex could then be followed selectively to determine the wind load on a structure. Lastly, the paper recommended that wind data collected from 1977 to 2021 by the Kenya Meteorological Department be incorporated to the development of the wind map for the Kenya National Annex to KS EN 1991-1-4:2005.

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          ScienceOpen Preprints
          12 January 2021
          [1 ] University of Nairobi

          This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at .

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          All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).

          Civil engineering

          CP3, Gusts, Design, Economic, Kenya, Wind, Eurocodes


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