many energy market design solutions have been proposed for many years. These include boosting international trade, reducing emissions, securing future electricity capacity, and increasing flexibility amid a growing number of intermittent renewable energy sources. Notional and methodological inventions in sociology are motivated by the emerging economic understandings of the energy infrastructure. The first part discusses how economic theories, instruments, and other methods are used to make market economic analysis more meaningful. With an emphasis on markets, liberalization, and sustainability, the second portion focuses on emerging studies that use these approaches. This essay introduces critical topics for understanding current energy transitions by blending social studies of markets with energy studies. The socio-technical energy system in transition can be viewed as an integral part of the financial system; on the other hand, the case of energy complements the social studies of markets and economics by emphasizing the interdependence between economics, engineering problems, existing infrastructures, and political tensions when market-based energy is at stake.