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      Molecular Docking and Admet Analyses of Photochemicals from Nigella sativa (blackseed), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) and Anona muricata (Soursop) on SARS-CoV-2 Target

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      SARS-COV-2, 3CLpro, Nigella sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Anona muricata, Molecular Docking, ADMET, COVID-19, coronavirus
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            Abstract

            The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global health challenge. The SARS-COV-2 main protease, 3CLpro/Mpro plays a critical role in the viral gene expression and replication and has been a major target for inhibiting viral maturation and enhancing host innate immune responses against COVID-19. In this study, we screened a library of 38 phytochemicals from Nigella sativa (blackseed), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) and Anona muricata (Soursop) potent medicinal plants with reported antiviral properties - in a molecular docking protocol on 3CLpro using Autodock4.0 tool implanted in PyRx followed by docking validation and insilico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology (ADMET) evaluations. The docking results were visualized using Accelrys Discovery Studio and Pymol software. Among the 38 ligands screened, 19 showed significant interaction through non-covalent hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions with binding affinities from -5.3kcal/mol to -8.1kcal/mol indicating significant binding interactions at the active site binding pocket. Another important interaction observed in the study which mostly involve the transfer of charges was pi-interactions such as Pi-Pi interaction, Pi-Alkyl interaction, Pi-Sulfur interaction, Pi- Sigma, and Pi-Pi stacking. The docking results revealed that phytochemicals from T. foenum-graecum showed more 3CLpro inhibitory potential compared to those from N. sativa and A. muricata. Insilico ADMET evaluations for drug-like and lead-like characteristics however demonstrated that only 8 ligands - apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, dithymoquinone, naringenine, nornuciferine, quercetin and nigellidine were actually drug-like; showed best activities against 3CLpro, and lack hepatotoxicity effects while none was lead-like. Insilico results of this study further suggested that drug repurposing candidates, remdesivir, indinavir,hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and ritonavir,exhibited various interactions with 3CLpro. Hence, further in vitro and in vivo studies are proposed.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ScienceOpen Preprints
            ScienceOpen
            7 June 2020
            Affiliations
            [1 ] FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA
            Article
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPKNVFY.v1
            4fe99eb6-c8f9-48dc-8270-6d013a391e44

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

            Funding
            NONE NONE

            All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).
            Life sciences
            SARS-COV-2,3CLpro,Nigella sativa,Trigonella foenum-graecum,Anona muricata,Molecular Docking,ADMET,COVID-19,coronavirus

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