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      Dexamethasone is a gold weapon for immunomodulation in severe COVID-19 but has no effect on endocrine interleukin 6 and sex-linked response the problem – In silico study

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      ScienceOpen Preprints
      dexamethasone, ACTH, endocrine, interleukin 6, covid-19, cortisol, adrenal gland


            Until now after nearly two years from lethally pandemic of covid-19 which is considered a joker virus as bypass many immune defenses in our bodies like innate and adaptive immunity with all types of cells but there are important markers at the long road for treatment like Interleukin (Il-6), neutrophils, high ferritin, high D dimer. Also, post-covid or long covid effects like neuropsychiatric problems like smell dysfunctions and hormonal dysfunctions. Therefore, this article will give a spotlight on the adrenal gland as a place where the immune and endocrine systems meet. Additionally, dexamethasone has no effect on Il-6 secreted from adrenal cortex and this allows Il-6 to be produced during stress. We need a new classification IL-6 at physiological and pathological aspects as the stimulatory factors are different. Endocrine Il-6 is stimulated by ACTH but the immune Il-6 is stimulated by il-1β and angiotensin II. Of note, dexamethasone saves critically covid-19 patients but in the same time has no affection on Il-6 of endocrine origin either basal or stimulated. Therefore, adrenal gland serves as a vital link between the endocrine and immunological systems at the pathogenesis of covid-19. Besides, Il-6 is the key sex-linked variation at their immune responses.


            Author and article information

            ScienceOpen Preprints
            2 December 2021
            [1 ] Director of tuberculosis program Ghubera, public health department, First health cluster, Ministry of health, Riyadh, Saudia Arabia
            [2 ] Department of chemistry and biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Egypt
            Author notes

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

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            The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
            Medicine,Immunology,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine,Infectious disease & Microbiology
            dexamethasone,ACTH,endocrine, interleukin 6,covid-19,cortisol,adrenal gland


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