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      2.2-Diphenic Acid: A Reliable Biomarker Of Phenanthrene Biodegradation

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            Abstract

            Phenanthrene is among the 16 priority pollutant and its mitigation in the environment has been a global concern. It serves as a model compound when it comes to biodgradation study of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because it has both the Bay- and K-region found in most PAH pollutants. Like other PAH pollutants, different means are available for its remediation in the environment, including microbial biodegradation. Diverse species of bacteria and fungi metabolize phenanthrenes as their sole source of carbon and energy. However, bacteria are more diverse in comparison to fungi. This has been shown in published pathways of phenanthrene biodegradation implicating various intermediary metabolites, including 2,2-diphenic acid, which is a downline metabolite of 9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene. Though the 2,2-diphenic acid has been widely demonstrated to produce carbon (iv) oxide and linked to phthalate, only few has traced salicylic acid as its downstream molecule. 2,2-diphenic acid mounts equivalent position to 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, metabolite that ends the phenanthrene metabolic pathway. This is because they both produce phthalic acid and salicylic acid. As a product of bacteria and fungi during phenanthrene degradation, 2,2-diphenic acid can serve as a dependable biomarker of phenanthrene metabolism in a polluted habitat, where microbial community exist freely.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ScienceOpen Preprints
            ScienceOpen
            14 March 2021
            Affiliations
            [1 ] Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
            Article
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPP4HD5.v1
            e67681cf-b5a8-49ea-a7cb-12fb1f8b6095

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

            Funding
            None None

            All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).
            Earth & Environmental sciences
            1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid,2,2’-diphenic acid,Bacteria,Intermediary metabolites,Phenanthrene,9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene.,Metabolic pathway,Microorganisms,Polluted habitat,Petroleum hydrocarbons

            Comments

            Phenanthrene is among the 16 priority polyaromatic hydrocarbons that pose threat to human health. And to reduce its concentration is a concern to environmental experts. Like other PAH pollutants, different means are available for its remediation in the environment, including microbial degradation. Microbial degradation entails breaking down of chemical compound bacteria, fungi, yeast and algae in the course of utilizing such compound (phenanthrene for example) as their source of carbon and energy. Among these organisms, bacteria are the most pronounced. In the course of degrading phenanthrene, certain pathways are followed and characterized by various intermediary metabolites. 2,2-diphenic acid is one of such metabolites which is a downline metabolite of 9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene. Like other signatory metabolites, the 2,2-diphenic acid can be used as a metabolic biomarker of phenanthrene degradation, though it has not been commonly presented as one in published articles. The 2,2-diphenic acid is equivalent in position to 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, which terminates the phenanthrene upper metabolic pathway. Both metabolites produce phthalic acid and salicylic acid and are produced by bacteria and fungi during phenanthrene degradation. Thus, 2,2-diphenic acid can serve as a dependable biomarker of phenanthrene metabolism in an unrestricted polluted habitat.

            2021-03-21 13:28 UTC
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