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      Causality in physical processes : Planck’s quantum of action and universal nonequilibrium dynamics

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            Abstract

            A mathematical model is presented that describes how the diverse phenomena in nature can arise from a common foundation rooted in an objective framework of relational causality. Key equations of conventional physical theories are derived anew. Rigorous derivations are shown for such fundamental relationships as the Schrödinger equation, Bohr’s formula for the hydrogen spectrum, Newton’s gravitational law, Coulomb’s electrostatic law, Compton shift formula, and other principal equations of electromagnetism, atomic theory, optics, and thermodynamics. Nuclear forces that bind nucleons and pry them apart are shown to arise from a single universal electrostatic force that also gives rise to the Coulomb force. Dark matter is shown to be an ever-present material content that subsists in the fabric of space everywhere. The precise value of Coulomb’s constant is derived on purely theoretical grounds, while hitherto unknown values are predicted for the electric dipole moments of electrons and protons. The first of three components of the core hypothesis of this model is that there exists a primordial seed particle of which all that lies in the universe is ultimately composed, and that it is defined by Planck’s constant. Space is modeled as a lattice of contiguous cells that are composed entirely of these particles, and are inherently elastic. The second component is that the universe evolves temporally through a recursive process, emulating a system of cellular automata. The third component stipulates that any compression produced in a cell by its ambient conditions generates potential energy according to classical elasticity. Thus, every cell seeks to minimize its stored potential energy at each step in its temporal evolution, in pursuit of elastic equilibrium. This core hypothesis in respect to the physical character of space, time, and energy is shown to lead logically to a universal dynamic that gives rise to the physical effects observed in nature at every scale.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ScienceOpen Preprints
            ScienceOpen
            14 June 2021
            Affiliations
            [1 ] Independent Researcher
            Article
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPPYS4V.v1
            d1ffb12f-668d-493f-8a7e-6517462ef199

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .


            The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the repository: https://osf.io/fcx8t/files
            Computer science,Astronomy & Astrophysics,Physics,Mathematics,Philosophy
            Planck's constant,cellular automata,gravitation,Coulomb force,nuclear force,fine-structure constant,relational causality,quantum mechanics,atomic spectra,nonlinear dynamics

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