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      Diabetic retinopathy treatments based on nanotechnology

      In review

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            Figures have been attached and typing errors have been corrected.


            Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by a high level of glucose in the blood. Diabetes is projected to affect 366 million people by 2030, and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is expected to rise accordingly. DR is a multifactorial late-stage manifestation in diabetic patients. This hyperglycemia is potentially the leading cause of retinal vascular disorder. With DR consuming roughly 40% of the total cost of diabetes care in the US, it translates to approximately $120 billion annually in economic burden, not only from direct disease management costs but also from lost worker productivity. Although some treatments are available, there is no treatment yet that could fully attenuate clinical progression to reverse damage to the retina. These shortcomings make it imperative to explore non-invasive, novel, and cost-effective routes for treating DR since all the available techniques are invasive, expensive, and primarily associated with side effects. Specialized databases and Mesh (terms defined as keywords by the researchers) were consulted to search for information that gathered scientific evidence on the subject in the last decade. Some of the databases used were: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, SpringerLink, and Clinicaltrials, among others. This review focuses on the importance of developing non-invasive alternatives for the treatment of DR.


            Author and article information

            ScienceOpen Preprints
            9 November 2022
            [1 ] Grupo de Investigación en Ingeniería Biomédica EIA (GIBEC), Programa de Ingeniería Biomédica, Escuela de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad EIA, km 2 + 200 Vía al Aeropuerto José María Córdova, Envigado 055428, Colombia.
            Author notes

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

            All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).
            Medicine,Engineering,Materials science
            Diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, novel therapies, nanotechnology, drug delivery


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