Cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC), a set of cardiac and respiratory rhythms that optimise the body oxygenation and the adaptability of the cardiorespiratory system to the external and internal environment, is represented in the linear domain by coefficient Qpr, the number of heartbeats per respiratory cycle (1, 2). Slow 0.1Hz breathing in supine position (Supin01) and active standing (Stand) represent the states of maximal RRI vagal and sympathetic modulation, respectively, in physiological quiescence; standing with 0.1Hz breathing (stand01) is characterized by qualitatively specific pattern of CRC(3). The aim of our work was to investigate the Qpr in 4 states: supine position with spontaneous breathing (supin), stand, supin01and stand01. Methods: The ECG (RRI) and respiration signals were simultaneously recorded in 20 healthy human subjects in four conditions. Data acquisition and processing was performed as in (3). Results: Parameter Supin (mean95%CI) Stand (mean95%CI) Supin01 (mean95%CI) Stand01 (mean95%CI) RRI [s] 0.980.13 0.720.10 1.060.13 0.750.09 sd RRI [s] 0.060.02 0.040.02 0.090.03 0.070.02 BBI [s] 4.681.53 4.581.80 9.850.71 9.950.20 sdBBI [s] 1.110.69 1.351.29 1.440.94 1.060.44 Qpr 4.811.67 6.392.43 9.411.20 13.481.66 sdQpr 1.140.67 1.931.73 1.390.71 1.540.53 Table 1. Mean value and 95%CI of RRI, BBI and Qpr for 20 healthy subjects in four physiological states: Supin-supine position with spontaneous breathing, Stand- standing with spontaneous breathing, Supin01-supine position with 0.1Hz breathing, Stand01-standing with slow 0.1Hz breathing. Parameter Supin-Stand Supin-Supin01 Supin-Stand01 Supin01-Stand01 RRI 0.000 0.0 04 0.000 0.000 sd RRI 0.0 04 0.00 0 0.351 0.0 10 BBI 0.391 0.000 0.000 0.313 sdBBI 0.232 0.433 0.911 0.135 Qpr 0.0 00 0.000 0.000 0.000 sdQpr 0.0 06 0.370 0.0 33 0.191 Table 2. Probability values (p) of statistically significant differences between different physiological states. Wilcoxon test on a sample of 20 subjects. Color-indicated statistically significant changes in values (p <0.05) whose changes were related and discussed. - increase of mean value, -decrease of mean value. Our results show that Qpr is state dependent and that it increases with the behavioral task complexity. Postural change tunes Qpr by RRI modulation, while 0.1Hz breathing dominantly by the increase of BBI. Stand01 is characterized by concomitant adjustment of both RRI and BBI. These data imply that Qpr regulation is "loosely" and selectively coordinated in stand and supin01("dual control") while integrated in stand01 ("unitary control"(4)). Analogously to nonlinear CRC(3), Qpr is probably operated by hierarchically higher diencephalo-telencephalic autonomic networks. References: 1. Moser M et al, Biol Rhythm Res 1995;26(1):100-111. 2. Scholkmann F et al, Front Physiol 2019;10:371. 3. Matić Z et al, Front Physiol 2020;11:24. 4. Feldman JL et al, Annu Rev Physiol 1988;50,593606.
Author and article information
] Department of Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics 080, „VINČA" Institute of Nuclear
Sciences - National Institute of thе Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Serbia
] Biomedical engineering and technology, University of Belgrade, Serbia
] Third Belgrade Lyceum, Serbia
] Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia
] Department for Life Sciences, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University
of Belgrade, Serbia
] Department for Mechanics, Faculty for Machine Engineering, University of Belgrade,
] Human Research Institute, Weiz, Austria; Chair of Physiology Medical University of
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Data availability: The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.