56
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
       
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Differential Gene Expression of Nystagmus-Associated Genes in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Parkinson's Disease, and Alzheimer's Disease

      Preprint
      In review
      research-article
      Bookmark

            Abstract

            Objectives: The research aimed to determine whether the genes that presented with nystagmus as part of their clinical presentation were differentially expressed in the brains of patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).

            Methodology: The data was derived from the available NCBI SRA datasets that allowed public domain use. The RNA sequence from the brain samples of the patients underwent differential expression analysis using the web-based platform Galaxy and R version 4.1.0 with R Studio.

            Results: There were only 19 genes out of the 28,395 retrieved genes in the patient groups and the control group that had significant under-expression in the patient group compared to controls (p<0.001). The genes that were identified can be divided into those involved in protein synthesis, cell cycle regulation, gap junction formation, transcription regulation, signal transduction, and synaptic function.

            Conclusion: Performing differential gene expression studies in the brain samples of post-mortem cases illustrate how autopsy pathology and neuroinformatics can elucidate the common genomic changes and molecular mechanisms that can present across different diseases which may have future significance in the field of both neuro- and ophthalmic pathology.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Journal
            ScienceOpen Preprints
            ScienceOpen
            26 April 2022
            Affiliations
            [1 ] SAERA (School of Advanced Education, Research and Accreditation S.L.) University Isabel I de Castilla, Spain
            Author notes
            Article
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPTECTM.v1
            6f11b7ab-aaff-4435-943d-9a132a9253ea

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .


            The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra
            Neurosciences,Life sciences
            nystagmus, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, differential gene expression

            References

            1. Abadi R. V. Mechanisms underlying nystagmus. JRSM. Vol. 95(5):231–234. 2002. SAGE Publications. [Cross Ref]

            2. TERAO Yasuo, FUKUDA Hideki, HIKOSAKA Okihide. What do eye movements tell us about patients with neurological disorders? — An introduction to saccade recording in the clinical setting —. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B. Vol. 93(10):772–801. 2017. Japan Academy. [Cross Ref]

            3. Thomas M. G., Crosier M., Lindsay S., Kumar A., Thomas S., Araki M., Talbot C. J., McLean R. J., Surendran M., Taylor K., Leroy B. P., Moore A. T., Hunter D. G., Hertle R. W., Tarpey P., Langmann A., Lindner S., Brandner M., Gottlob I.. The clinical and molecular genetic features of idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus. Brain. Vol. 134(3):892–902. 2011. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            4. Mariani Megan, Alosco Michael L., Mez Jesse, Stern Robert A.. Clinical Presentation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Seminars in Neurology. Vol. 40(04):370–383. 2020. Georg Thieme Verlag KG. [Cross Ref]

            5. Reams Nicole, Eckner James T., Almeida Andrea A., Aagesen Andrea L., Giordani Bruno, Paulson Hank, Lorincz Matthew T., Kutcher Jeffrey S.. A Clinical Approach to the Diagnosis of Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome. JAMA Neurology. Vol. 73(6)2016. American Medical Association (AMA). [Cross Ref]

            6. Geddes J. F., Vowles G. H., Nicoll J. A. R., Révész T.. Neuronal cytoskeletal changes are an early consequence of repetitive head injury. Acta Neuropathologica. Vol. 98(2):171–178. 1999. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            7. Gardner Raquel C., Yaffe Kristine. Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. Vol. 66:75–80. 2015. Elsevier BV. [Cross Ref]

            8. Hayden M. G., Jandial R., Duenas H. A., Mahajan R., Levy M.. Pediatric concussions in sports; a simple and rapid assessment tool for concussive injury in children and adults. Child's Nervous System. Vol. 23(4):431–435. 2007. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            9. Mortimer J A, Van Duijn C M, Chandra V, Fratiglioni L, Graves A B, Heyman A, Jorm A F, Kokmen E, Kondo K, Rocca W A, Shalat S L, Soininen H. Head Trauma as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease: A Collaborative Re-Analysis of Case-Control Studies. International Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 20(Supplement 2)1991. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            10. Weller Jason, Budson Andrew. Current understanding of Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis and treatment. F1000Research. Vol. 7:2018. F1000 Research Ltd. [Cross Ref]

            11. Nakamagoe Kiyotaka, Yamada Shiori, Kawakami Rio, Koganezawa Tadachika, Tamaoka Akira. Abnormal Saccadic Intrusions with Alzheimer's Disease in Darkness. Current Alzheimer Research. Vol. 16(4):293–301. 2019. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. [Cross Ref]

            12. Parkinson Joan, Maxner Charles. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Alzheimer Disease: Case Presentation and Literature Review. American Orthoptic Journal. Vol. 55(1):90–96. 2005. Informa UK Limited. [Cross Ref]

            13. Robertson Gordon, Schein Jacqueline, Chiu Readman, Corbett Richard, Field Matthew, Jackman Shaun D, Mungall Karen, Lee Sam, Okada Hisanaga Mark, Qian Jenny Q, Griffith Malachi, Raymond Anthony, Thiessen Nina, Cezard Timothee, Butterfield Yaron S, Newsome Richard, Chan Simon K, She Rong, Varhol Richard, Kamoh Baljit, Prabhu Anna-Liisa, Tam Angela, Zhao YongJun, Moore Richard A, Hirst Martin, Marra Marco A, Jones Steven J M, Hoodless Pamela A, Birol Inanc. De novo assembly and analysis of RNA-seq data. Nature Methods. Vol. 7(11):909–912. 2010. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            14. Costa-Silva Juliana, Domingues Douglas, Lopes Fabricio Martins. RNA-Seq differential expression analysis: An extended review and a software tool. PLOS ONE. Vol. 12(12)2017. Public Library of Science (PLoS). [Cross Ref]

            15. Marques-Coelho Diego, Iohan Lukas da Cruz Carvalho, Melo de Farias Ana Raquel, Flaig Amandine, Lambert Jean-Charles, Costa Marcos Romualdo. Differential transcript usage unravels gene expression alterations in Alzheimer’s disease human brains. npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease. Vol. 7(1)2021. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            16. Nido Gonzalo S., Dick Fiona, Toker Lilah, Petersen Kjell, Alves Guido, Tysnes Ole-Bjørn, Jonassen Inge, Haugarvoll Kristoffer, Tzoulis Charalampos. Common gene expression signatures in Parkinson’s disease are driven by changes in cell composition. Acta Neuropathologica Communications. Vol. 8(1)2020. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            17. Calame Daniel G., Hainlen Meagan, Takacs Danielle, Ferrante Leah, Pence Kayla, Emrick Lisa T., Chao Hsiao-Tuan. <i>EIF2AK2</i>-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder With Leukoencephalopathy, Developmental Delay, and Episodic Neurologic Regression Mimics Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease. Neurology Genetics. Vol. 7(1)2021. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). [Cross Ref]

            18. Sia Sonia, Olorsoa Agnettah, Limas Marilyn, Jamoralin Jr. Manuel, Macaranas Polle Kyrstle, Espiritu Holly Grace, Gayeta June, Masim Melissa Ana, Ablola Ferissa Buensalida, Carlos Celia. A Fifteen-Year Report of Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Pathology. Vol. 5(1):19–29. 2020. Philippine Journal of Pathology. [Cross Ref]

            19. Seo Jeong-Sun, Lee Seungbok, Shin Jong-Yeon, Hwang Yu Jin, Cho Hyesun, Yoo Seong-Keun, Kim Yunha, Lim Sungsu, Kim Yun Kyung, Hwang Eun Mi, Kim Su Hyun, Kim Chong-Hyun, Hyeon Seung Jae, Yun Ji-Young, Kim Jihye, Kim Yona, Alvarez Victor E, Stein Thor D, Lee Junghee, Kim Dong Jin, Kim Jong-Il, Kowall Neil W, Ryu Hoon, McKee Ann C. Transcriptome analyses of chronic traumatic encephalopathy show alterations in protein phosphatase expression associated with tauopathy. Experimental &amp; Molecular Medicine. Vol. 49(5)2017. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            20. Scheckel Claudia, Drapeau Elodie, Frias Maria A, Park Christopher Y, Fak John, Zucker-Scharff Ilana, Kou Yan, Haroutunian Vahram, Ma'ayan Avi, Buxbaum Joseph D, Darnell Robert B. Regulatory consequences of neuronal ELAV-like protein binding to coding and non-coding RNAs in human brain. eLife. Vol. 5:2016. eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd. [Cross Ref]

            21. Dumitriu Alexandra, Golji Javad, Labadorf Adam T., Gao Benbo, Beach Thomas G., Myers Richard H., Longo Kenneth A., Latourelle Jeanne C.. Integrative analyses of proteomics and RNA transcriptomics implicate mitochondrial processes, protein folding pathways and GWAS loci in Parkinson disease. BMC Medical Genomics. Vol. 9(1)2015. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            22. Afgan Enis, Baker Dannon, Batut Bérénice, van den Beek Marius, Bouvier Dave, Čech Martin, Chilton John, Clements Dave, Coraor Nate, Grüning Björn A, Guerler Aysam, Hillman-Jackson Jennifer, Hiltemann Saskia, Jalili Vahid, Rasche Helena, Soranzo Nicola, Goecks Jeremy, Taylor James, Nekrutenko Anton, Blankenberg Daniel. The Galaxy platform for accessible, reproducible and collaborative biomedical analyses: 2018 update. Nucleic Acids Research. Vol. 46(W1)2018. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            23. Leinonen R., Sugawara H., Shumway M.. The Sequence Read Archive. Nucleic Acids Research. Vol. 39(Database)2011. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            24. Kim Daehwan, Langmead Ben, Salzberg Steven L. HISAT: a fast spliced aligner with low memory requirements. Nature Methods. Vol. 12(4):357–360. 2015. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            25. Liao Y., Smyth G. K., Shi W.. featureCounts: an efficient general purpose program for assigning sequence reads to genomic features. Bioinformatics. Vol. 30(7):923–930. 2014. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            26. Szklarczyk Damian, Gable Annika L, Nastou Katerina C, Lyon David, Kirsch Rebecca, Pyysalo Sampo, Doncheva Nadezhda T, Legeay Marc, Fang Tao, Bork Peer, Jensen Lars J, von Mering Christian. The STRING database in 2021: customizable protein–protein networks, and functional characterization of user-uploaded gene/measurement sets. Nucleic Acids Research. Vol. 49(D1)2021. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            27. Volk Alexander E., Hedergott Andrea, Preising Markus, Rading Sebastian, Fricke Julia, Herkenrath Peter, Nürnberg Peter, Altmüller Janine, von Ameln Simon, Lorenz Birgit, Neugebauer Antje, Karsak Meliha, Kubisch Christian. Biallelic mutations in l-dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) cause infantile nystagmus and oculocutaneous albinism. Human Genetics. Vol. 140(8):1157–1168. 2021. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            28. Strupp Michael, Maul Stephan, Konte Bettina, Hartmann Annette M., Giegling Ina, Wollenteit Sophia, Feil Katharina, Rujescu Dan. A Variation in FGF14 Is Associated with Downbeat Nystagmus in a Genome-Wide Association Study. The Cerebellum. Vol. 19(3):348–357. 2020. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            29. Berko Esther R, Cho Megan T, Eng Christine, Shao Yunru, Sweetser David A, Waxler Jessica, Robin Nathaniel H, Brewer Fallon, Donkervoort Sandra, Mohassel Payam, Bönnemann Carsten G, Bialer Martin, Moore Christine, Wolfe Lynne A, Tifft Cynthia J, Shen Yufeng, Retterer Kyle, Millan Francisca, Chung Wendy K. De novo missense variants in<i>HECW2</i>are associated with neurodevelopmental delay and hypotonia. Journal of Medical Genetics. Vol. 54(2):84–86. 2017. BMJ. [Cross Ref]

            30. Al-Yahyaee Said Ali, Al-Kindi Mohammed, Jonghe Peter De, Al-Asmi Abdulah, Al-Futaisi Amna, Vriendt Els De, Deconinck Tine, Chand Pratap. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher–Like Disease in a Family With Variable Phenotype and a Novel Splicing <i>GJC2</i> Mutation. Journal of Child Neurology. Vol. 28(11):1467–1473. 2013. SAGE Publications. [Cross Ref]

            31. Tlemsani Camille, Luscan Armelle, Leulliot Nicolas, Bieth Eric, Afenjar Alexandra, Baujat Geneviève, Doco-Fenzy Martine, Goldenberg Alice, Lacombe Didier, Lambert Laetitia, Odent Sylvie, Pasche Jérôme, Sigaudy Sabine, Buffet Alexandre, Violle-Poirsier Céline, Briand-Suleau Audrey, Laurendeau Ingrid, Chin Magali, Saugier-Veber Pascale, Vidaud Dominique, Cormier-Daire Valérie, Vidaud Michel, Pasmant Eric, Burglen Lydie. <i>SETD2</i>and<i>DNMT3A</i>screen in the Sotos-like syndrome French cohort. Journal of Medical Genetics. Vol. 53(11):743–751. 2016. BMJ. [Cross Ref]

            32. Faundes Víctor, Goh Stephanie, Akilapa Rhoda, Bezuidenhout Heidre, Bjornsson Hans T., Bradley Lisa, Brady Angela F., Brischoux-Boucher Elise, Brunner Han, Bulk Saskia, Canham Natalie, Cody Declan, Dentici Maria Lisa, Digilio Maria Cristina, Elmslie Frances, Fry Andrew E., Gill Harinder, Hurst Jane, Johnson Diana, Julia Sophie, Lachlan Katherine, Lebel Robert Roger, Byler Melissa, Gershon Eric, Lemire Edmond, Gnazzo Maria, Lepri Francesca Romana, Marchese Antonia, McEntagart Meriel, McGaughran Julie, Mizuno Seiji, Okamoto Nobuhiko, Rieubland Claudine, Rodgers Jonathan, Sasaki Erina, Scalais Emmanuel, Scurr Ingrid, Suri Mohnish, van der Burgt Ineke, Matsumoto Naomichi, Miyake Noriko, Benoit Valérie, Lederer Damien, Banka Siddharth. Clinical delineation, sex differences, and genotype–phenotype correlation in pathogenic KDM6A variants causing X-linked Kabuki syndrome type 2. Genetics in Medicine. Vol. 23(7):1202–1210. 2021. Elsevier BV. [Cross Ref]

            33. Calame Daniel G., Hainlen Meagan, Takacs Danielle, Ferrante Leah, Pence Kayla, Emrick Lisa T., Chao Hsiao-Tuan. <i>EIF2AK2</i>-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder With Leukoencephalopathy, Developmental Delay, and Episodic Neurologic Regression Mimics Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease. Neurology Genetics. Vol. 7(1)2021. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). [Cross Ref]

            34. Zanni Ginevra, Calì Tito, Kalscheuer Vera M., Ottolini Denis, Barresi Sabina, Lebrun Nicolas, Montecchi-Palazzi Luisa, Hu Hao, Chelly Jamel, Bertini Enrico, Brini Marisa, Carafoli Ernesto. Mutation of plasma membrane Ca <sup>2+</sup> ATPase isoform 3 in a family with X-linked congenital cerebellar ataxia impairs Ca <sup>2+</sup> homeostasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol. 109(36):14514–14519. 2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [Cross Ref]

            35. Self J, Mercer C, Boon E M J, Murugavel M, Shawkat F, Hammans S, Hodgkins P, Griffiths H, Lotery A. Infantile nystagmus and late onset ataxia associated with a CACNA1A mutation in the intracellular loop between s4 and s5 of domain 3. Eye. Vol. 23(12):2251–2255. 2009. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            36. Hackett Anna, Tarpey Patrick S, Licata Andrea, Cox James, Whibley Annabel, Boyle Jackie, Rogers Carolyn, Grigg John, Partington Michael, Stevenson Roger E, Tolmie John, Yates John RW, Turner Gillian, Wilson Meredith, Futreal Andrew P, Corbett Mark, Shaw Marie, Gecz Jozef, Raymond F Lucy, Stratton Michael R, Schwartz Charles E, Abidi Fatima E. CASK mutations are frequent in males and cause X-linked nystagmus and variable XLMR phenotypes. European Journal of Human Genetics. Vol. 18(5):544–552. 2010. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            37. Gao Ruoqi, Piguel Nicolas H., Melendez-Zaidi Alexandria E., Martin-de-Saavedra Maria Dolores, Yoon Sehyoun, Forrest Marc P., Myczek Kristoffer, Zhang Gefei, Russell Theron A., Csernansky John G., Surmeier D. James, Penzes Peter. CNTNAP2 stabilizes interneuron dendritic arbors through CASK. Molecular Psychiatry. Vol. 23(9):1832–1850. 2018. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            38. Niturad Cristina Elena, Lev Dorit, Kalscheuer Vera M, Charzewska Agnieszka, Schubert Julian, Lerman-Sagie Tally, Kroes Hester Y, Oegema Renske, Traverso Monica, Specchio Nicola, Lassota Maria, Chelly Jamel, Bennett-Back Odeya, Carmi Nirit, Koffler-Brill Tal, Iacomino Michele, Trivisano Marina, Capovilla Giuseppe, Striano Pasquale, Nawara Magdalena, Rzońca Sylwia, Fischer Ute, Bienek Melanie, Jensen Corinna, Hu Hao, Thiele Holger, Altmüller Janine, Krause Roland, May Patrick, Becker Felicitas, Balling Rudi, Biskup Saskia, Haas Stefan A, Nürnberg Peter, van Gassen Koen L I, Lerche Holger, Zara Federico, Maljevic Snezana, Leshinsky-Silver Esther. Rare GABRA3 variants are associated with epileptic seizures, encephalopathy and dysmorphic features. Brain. 2017. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            39. Pollini Luca, Galosi Serena, Tolve Manuela, Caputi Caterina, Carducci Carla, Angeloni Antonio, Leuzzi Vincenzo. KCND3-Related Neurological Disorders: From Old to Emerging Clinical Phenotypes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Vol. 21(16)2020. MDPI AG. [Cross Ref]

            40. Kammoun Molka, Brady Paul, De Catte Luc, Deprest Jan, Devriendt Koenraad, Vermeesch Joris Robert. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia as a part of Nance–Horan syndrome? European Journal of Human Genetics. Vol. 26(3):359–366. 2018. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            41. Jakimiec Martyna, Paprocka Justyna, Śmigiel Robert. CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder—A Complex Epileptic Encephalopathy. Brain Sciences. Vol. 10(2)2020. MDPI AG. [Cross Ref]

            42. Traverso M., Assereto S., Gazzerro E., Savasta S., Abdalla E.M., Rossi A., Baldassari S., Fruscione F., Ruffinazzi G., Fassad M.R., El Beheiry A., Minetti C., Zara F., Biancheri R.. Novel FAM126A mutations in hypomyelination and congenital cataract disease. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Vol. 439(3):369–372. 2013. Elsevier BV. [Cross Ref]

            43. Madeo Marianna, Stewart Michelle, Sun Yuyang, Sahir Nadia, Wiethoff Sarah, Chandrasekar Indra, Yarrow Anna, Rosenfeld Jill A., Yang Yaping, Cordeiro Dawn, McCormick Elizabeth M., Muraresku Colleen C., Jepperson Tyler N., McBeth Lauren J., Seidahmed Mohammed Zain, El Khashab Heba Y., Hamad Muddathir, Azzedine Hamid, Clark Karl, Corrochano Silvia, Wells Sara, Elting Mariet W., Weiss Marjan M., Burn Sabrina, Myers Angela, Landsverk Megan, Crotwell Patricia L., Waisfisz Quinten, Wolf Nicole I., Nolan Patrick M., Padilla-Lopez Sergio, Houlden Henry, Lifton Richard, Mane Shrikant, Singh Brij B., Falk Marni J., Mercimek-Mahmutoglu Saadet, Bilguvar Kaya, Salih Mustafa A., Acevedo-Arozena Abraham, Kruer Michael C.. Loss-of-Function Mutations in FRRS1L Lead to an Epileptic-Dyskinetic Encephalopathy. The American Journal of Human Genetics. Vol. 98(6):1249–1255. 2016. Elsevier BV. [Cross Ref]

            44. Josifova Dragana J., Monroe Glen R., Tessadori Federico, de Graaff Esther, van der Zwaag Bert, Mehta Sarju G., Harakalova Magdalena, Duran Karen J., Savelberg Sanne M.C., Nijman Isaäc J., Jungbluth Heinz, Hoogenraad Casper C., Bakkers Jeroen, Knoers Nine V., Firth Helen V., Beales Philip L., van Haaften Gijs, van Haelst Mieke M.. Heterozygous<i>KIDINS220/ARMS</i>nonsense variants cause spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity. Human Molecular Genetics. Vol. 25(11):2158–2167. 2016. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Cross Ref]

            45. Jellinger Kurt A.. A critical evaluation of current staging of α-synuclein pathology in Lewy body disorders. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease. Vol. 1792(7):730–740. 2009. Elsevier BV. [Cross Ref]

            46. Braak H., Braak E.. Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathologica. Vol. 82(4):239–259. 1991. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            47. McKee Ann C., Stein Thor D., Kiernan Patrick T., Alvarez Victor E.. The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Brain Pathology. Vol. 25(3):350–364. 2015. Wiley. [Cross Ref]

            48. Guo Tiantian, Zhang Denghong, Zeng Yuzhe, Huang Timothy Y., Xu Huaxi, Zhao Yingjun. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular Neurodegeneration. Vol. 15(1)2020. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            49. Jo Myungjin, Lee Shinrye, Jeon Yu-Mi, Kim Seyeon, Kwon Younghwi, Kim Hyung-Jun. The role of TDP-43 propagation in neurodegenerative diseases: integrating insights from clinical and experimental studies. Experimental &amp; Molecular Medicine. Vol. 52(10):1652–1662. 2020. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Cross Ref]

            50. Lynch David S, Wade Charles, Paiva Anderson Rodrigues Brandão de, John Nevin, Kinsella Justin A, Merwick Áine, Ahmed Rebekah M, Warren Jason D, Mummery Catherine J, Schott Jonathan M, Fox Nick C, Houlden Henry, Adams Matthew E, Davagnanam Indran, Murphy Elaine, Chataway Jeremy. Practical approach to the diagnosis of adult-onset leukodystrophies: an updated guide in the genomic era. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery &amp; Psychiatry. Vol. 90(5):543–554. 2019. BMJ. [Cross Ref]

            Comments

            Comment on this article