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      Crosstalk among strenuous exercise, IL-6, and S-Protein Based Vaccines for COVID-19 may explain the rare adverse effects of myocarditis and thrombosis in recently vaccinated young people. A prospective observational study.

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      ScienceOpen Preprints
      COVID-19, vaccination , myocarditis, thrombosis, IL-6



            Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a type of interleukin that functions as both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. It is encoded by the IL6 gene in humans. Both COVID-19 infection and S-Protein Based Vaccines for COVID-19 were found to induce the production of pro-inflammatory IL-6, and also, strenuous exercise was found to induce IL-6 secretion by the skeletal muscles via lactate. Exercise causes skeletal muscle cells to release IL-6, and it raises the plasma concentration of IL-6 100 times higher than at rest. Exercise-induced IL-6 release is highly correlated with exercise intensity and duration; thus, IL-6 is regarded as an energy sensor released by contracting muscles. Although, COVID-19 infection and S-Protein Based Vaccines for COVID-19 have similar pathological effects, such as myocardial infarction, thrombotic and coagulation abnormalities (deep thrombosis), but these adverse effects are rarely associated with S-Protein Based Vaccines for COVID-19. Recently, it was shown that most patients who experienced myocarditis after the COVID-19 vaccine were young male youth aged 16 to 29 years had the highest incidence of myocarditis. Interestingly, It was observed that IL-6 was linked to adverse effects such as thrombosis and myocarditis, both of which are similar to that was caused by COVID-19 infection, and that S-Protein based vaccines for COVID-19. Here, we propose a testable hypothesis that strenuous exercise could be a risk and cofactor helping in the existence of these adverse effects in young people such as myocarditis and thrombosis via induction of the secretion of proinflammatory IL-6. In our retrospective and prospective observational study, we will assess the possible correlation among strenuous exercise, IL-6, myocarditis, and thrombosis. The study will be multi-center and will involve a young patient who will be vaccinated with first, second, and third doses of S-Protein Based Vaccines for COVID-19 (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine). Pfizer and BioNTech have successfully developed the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, which consists of the full-length S glycoprotein with the K986P and V987P mutation sites. Also, Moderna's mRNA-1273 vaccine contains the coding sequence for an S glycoprotein stabilized by a pair of proline substitutions (K986P/V987P), a transmembrane anchor, and an intact S1-S2 cleavage site



            Author and article information

            ScienceOpen Preprints
            21 December 2021
            [1 ] Department of chemistry and biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Egypt
            [2 ] Department of chemistry, College of Science , University of Tabuk , Saudia Arabia
            [3 ] Director of tuberculosis program Ghubera, public health department ,First health cluster ,Ministry of health , Riyadh, Saudia Arabia
            [4 ] Professor of Sport Nutrition (Sport Nutritionist) Exercise Physiology Department, College of Sports Science and Physical Activity (King Saud University, Riyadh)
            Author notes

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

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            All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).
            Medicine,Life sciences
            vaccination ,thrombosis,myocarditis,IL-6,COVID-19


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