Version and Review History

- Record: found
- Abstract: found
- Article: found

Preprint

research-article

5 October 2021

- The abstract has been rewritten
- All the conclusions of the article are listed in the Conclusion section of the article.
- The Discussion section adds the following contents: 5. In Mpemba's experiment, hot milk froze faster than cold milk, meaning that changing an object's temperature requires very little energy to have a significant time effect. But increasing the speed of the object requires a lot of energy to produce a small difference in time. Why?
- The article is divided into six sections: Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Discussion, Conclutions and References
- In the new version t and t 'have been switched，t is the time on the object, and t’ is the time of the observer.

By analyzing the relation between time and speed, the relation between time and gravitational field, the gravitational redshift of photon and the black-body radiation theorem, the conclusion that time on an object is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature of the object is obtained. Applying the above conclusion about the nature of time, the author analyzes the Mpemba effect and the inverse Mpemba effect, and reaches the following conclusion: the Mpemba effect is the time effect produced when heat flows from objects into space, and the "inverse" Mpemba effect is the time effect produced when heat flows from space into objects.

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).