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      Removal of Heavy Metal using Non-ionic Surfactant: A Review

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      heavy metal, non-ionic surfactant, cloud point extraction, soil washing

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          Abstract

          In emerging countries, heavy metal contamination is becoming more of a problem. Because of poor water and wastewater treatment, as well as increased industrial activities, heavy metal contamination in rivers, lakes, and other water sources has increased in developing countries. Non-ionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Triton X-114 have been widely utilized to remove heavy metals from water, soil, and sediments via cloud point extraction and soil washing. The effectiveness of non-ionic surfactant to remove heavy metal was determined by the study of effect of the parameters which are pH, surfactant concentration, temperature, and presence of natural organic matter (NOM). Based on the overall study, non-ionic surfactant efficiency in removing heavy metals is strongly reliant on water and soil quality parameters such as pH, surfactant concentration, and temperature, as well as the surfactant's characteristics.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          ScienceOpen Preprints
          ScienceOpen
          4 October 2021
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.
          Author notes
          Article
          10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPXWFE7.v1

          This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

          Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

          Chemistry, Materials science

          heavy metal, non-ionic surfactant, cloud point extraction, soil washing

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