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MicroRNAs: an emerging player in autophagy

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      Abstract

      Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved self-digestion process for the quality control of intracellular entities in eukaryotes. In the past few years, mounting evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression represents an integral part of the autophagy regulatory network and may have a substantial effect on autophagy-related physiological and pathological conditions including cancer. Herein, we examine some of the molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs manipulate the autophagic machinery to maintain cellular homeostasis and their biological outputs during cancer development. A better understanding of interaction between miRNAs and cellular autophagy may ultimately benefit future cancer diagnostic and anticancer therapeutics.

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      Most cited references 64

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      MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function.

       David Bartel (2004)
      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22 nt RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.
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        Autophagy in the pathogenesis of disease.

        Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is essential for survival, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Autophagy principally serves an adaptive role to protect organisms against diverse pathologies, including infections, cancer, neurodegeneration, aging, and heart disease. However, in certain experimental disease settings, the self-cannibalistic or, paradoxically, even the prosurvival functions of autophagy may be deleterious. This Review summarizes recent advances in understanding the physiological functions of autophagy and its possible roles in the causation and prevention of human diseases.
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          Autophagy: renovation of cells and tissues.

          Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation system by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to and degraded in the lysosome. However, the purpose of autophagy is not the simple elimination of materials, but instead, autophagy serves as a dynamic recycling system that produces new building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis. Here we provide a multidisciplinary review of our current understanding of autophagy's role in metabolic adaptation, intracellular quality control, and renovation during development and differentiation. We also explore how recent mouse models in combination with advances in human genetics are providing key insights into how the impairment or activation of autophagy contributes to pathogenesis of diverse diseases, from neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease to inflammatory disorders such as Crohn disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
            Author notes
            [* ]Corresponding author's e-mail address: yongfei.yang@ 123456usc.edu ; chengyu.liang@ 123456usc.edu
            Contributors
            (View ORCID Profile)
            Journal
            SOR-LIFE
            ScienceOpen Research
            ScienceOpen
            2199-1006
            22 December 2014
            : 0 (ID: dfcd3b09-eb66-454f-ae5c-19894f1eb382 )
            : 0
            : 1-7
            2327:XE
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-LIFE.A181CU.v1
            © 2014 Y. Yang and C. Liang.

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

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            Figures: 1, Tables: 0, References: 61, Pages: 7
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            Original article

            Life sciences

            Cancer, Autophagy, microRNA

            Comments

            This is very focused and updated review on a topic that is capturing increasing interest in the scientific community. The manuscript is written in a clear and readable manner. There is only a minor typing error to be corrected at pag. 4, right column as indicated below the ability of tumor cells to survive metabolic stresses and thereof sensitized sensitizes hepatocellular The literature cited covers the most relevant papers, though the authors have failed to cite some review-papers on this same subject. Also, the implications in the biology and therapy of diseases (Conclusion, pag. 5), and in particular of cancer could be expanded. In this respect, I would recommend the authors to refer to the papers listed below. The readers would appreciate to read more about the role of miRNAs in the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy and the implications in cancer development and chemoresistance. I am in favor of the publication of this article provided that the Authors address the above issues. 1: Chen Y, Fu LL, Wen X, Liu B, Huang J, Wang JH, Wei YQ. Oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles of microRNAs in apoptosis and autophagy. Apoptosis. 2014 Aug;19(8):1177-89. doi: 10.1007/s10495-014-0999-7. 2: Pan B, Yi J, Song H. MicroRNA-mediated autophagic signaling networks and cancer chemoresistance. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013 Oct;28(8):573-8. doi: 10.1089/cbr.2012.1460. 3: Jing Z, Han W, Sui X, Xie J, Pan H. Interaction of autophagy with microRNAs and their potential therapeutic implications in human cancers. Cancer Lett. 2015 Jan 28;356(2 Pt B):332-8. 4: Titone R, Morani F, Follo C, Vidoni C, Mezzanzanica D, Isidoro C. Epigenetic control of autophagy by microRNAs in ovarian cancer. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:343542. doi: 10.1155/2014/343542. 5: Liu B, Wen X, Cheng Y. Survival or death: disequilibrating the oncogenic and tumor suppressive autophagy in cancer. Cell Death Dis. 2013 Oct 31;4:e892. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.422.
            2015-03-24 10:20 UTC
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