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      Serotonin is required for pharyngeal arch morphogenesis in zebrafish

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          Serotonin (5-HT) is not only a neurotransmitter but also a mediator of developmental processes in vertebrates. In this study, we analyzed the importance of 5-HT during zebrafish development. The expression patterns of three zebrafish tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms (Tph1A, Tph1B, Tph2), the rate-limiting enzymes in 5-HT synthesis, were analyzed and compared to the appearance and distribution of 5-HT. 5-HT was found in the raphe nuclei correlating with tph2 expression and in the pineal gland correlating with tph1a and tph2 expressions. Tph2-deficient fish generated with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides exhibited morphogenesis defects during pharyngeal arch development. The correct specification of neural crest (NC) cells was not affected in tph2 morphants as shown by the expression of early markers, but the survival and differentiation of pharyngeal arch progenitor cells were impaired. An organizing role of 5-HT in pharyngeal arch morphogenesis was suggested by a highly regular pattern of 5-HT positive cells in this tissue. Moreover, the 5-HT2B receptor was expressed in the pharyngeal arches and its pharmacological inhibition also induced defects in pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. These results support an important role of Tph2-derived serotonin as a morphogenetic factor in the development of NC-derived tissues.

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          A gene regulatory network orchestrates neural crest formation.

          The neural crest is a multipotent, migratory cell population that is unique to vertebrate embryos and gives rise to many derivatives, ranging from the peripheral nervous system to the craniofacial skeleton and pigment cells. A multimodule gene regulatory network mediates the complex process of neural crest formation, which involves the early induction and maintenance of the precursor pool, emigration of the neural crest progenitors from the neural tube via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, migration of progenitor cells along distinct pathways and overt differentiation into diverse cell types. Here, we review our current understanding of these processes and discuss the molecular players that are involved in the neural crest gene regulatory network.
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            Development and evolution of the neural crest: an overview.

            The neural crest is a multipotent and migratory cell type that forms transiently in the developing vertebrate embryo. These cells emerge from the central nervous system, migrate extensively and give rise to diverse cell lineages including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia, and smooth muscle. A vertebrate innovation, the gene regulatory network underlying neural crest formation appears to be highly conserved, even to the base of vertebrates. Here, we present an overview of important concepts in the neural crest field dating from its discovery 150 years ago to open questions that will motivate future research. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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              Zebrafish hox Clusters and Vertebrate Genome Evolution

               A Amores (1998)

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                ScienceOpen Research
                22 December 2014
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                [1 ]Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author's e-mail address: sbashammakh@
                © 2014 S. Bashammakh et al.

                This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at .

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, References: 54, Pages: 9
                Original article

                Life sciences

                serotonin, zebrafish, pharyngeal arches, neural crest cells


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