Data on seizure-like phenomena (SLP) in patients receiving propofol were systematically reviewed. Reports had to provide detailed information on SLP in individual patients who received propofol. Phenomena were classified according to the time point of their occurrence during anesthesia or sedation (induction, maintenance, emergence, delayed [>30 minutes after emergence]) and their clinical presentation (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, focal motor seizures, events presented as increased tone with twitching and rhythmic movements not perceived as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, opisthotonos, involuntary movements). In 70 patients without epilepsy, SLP happened during induction in 24 (34%), during maintenance in two (3%), during emergence in 28 (40%), and was delayed in 16 (23%). Most frequent clinical presentations of SLP were generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 30 patients (43%), events presented as increased tone with twitching and rhythmic movements not perceived as generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 20 (36%), and involuntary movements in 11 (16%). Of 11 patients with epilepsy, seven (64%) had generalized tonic-clonic seizure during emergence. Of all 81 patients, 26 (32%) only had an EEG, and 12 (15%) only a neurologic consultation. SLP may happen in patients with or without epilepsy receiving propofol. The time point of the occurrence of SLP suggests that a change in cerebral concentration of propofol may be causal. To confirm this hypothesis, to estimate the prevalence of propofol-related SLP, and to identify patients at risk, data of higher quality are needed.