This is a conclusion to a special issue on extraterritoriality on EU law and human
rights. It offers some reflections on the articles in the special issue, in particular
from the perspective of public international law and international trade law. In this
context, it looks at the distinction between the right of a State to regulate activities
beyond its jurisdiction, and its obligation – including under human rights law – to
do so. It also looks at how the answer might differ according to whether the form
of regulation is direct or – especially common in international trade law, where the
direct object of regulation relates to access to a domestic market – indirect.