School is one of the areas where social pedagogy has taken on an increasingly important function. Supported by available literature, the aim of this literature review is to describe and analyse how the work of social pedagogues in schools can be manifested. The literature review shows that social pedagogical work in schools is common in many countries and emerging in others. The study shows a wide variation both between and within countries with regard to the mission and goals, status, role and function, tasks and activities of social pedagogues. The primary mission is inclusion of pupil groups or individuals with various types of psychosocial problems or school-related difficulties, followed by preventive work aimed at all pupils to counteract social exclusion in school, disciplining groups of pupils who are in various ways disrupting or breaking school norms, a consciousness-raising and mobilising mission and a more general teaching mission aimed at citizenship and democratic upbringing. The literature review shows that social pedagogy as a profession enjoys high currency and relevance in schools with a view to preventing the segregation and exclusion of pupils.