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      The Politics of ‘Economic Inclusion’ in Canada: Past, Present, Prospects

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          Abstract

          This article examines Canada’s relative success in restoring ‘economic inclusion’ and ‘inclusive growth’ between the political and economic disruptions of the 1990s and the mid-2010s. Noting competing views of the concept of ‘inclusion’, it explores four major factors which contributed to reducing domestic tensions during this period. These include the intentional accommodation of diverse regional interests through increased decentralization of Canadian federalism, the use of international trade policies to facilitate largely complementary regional economic policies, the restoration of fiscal sustainability in federal economic policies and to varying degrees across provinces, and the cultivation of cross-partisan consensus on immigration policies to avoid the social polarization experienced in other industrial countries. It concludes by noting areas of political vulnerability with the potential to disrupt this consensus.

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          Most cited references 79

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          The Governments and Societies of Canadian Federalism

           Alan Cairns (1977)
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            The Multilevel Governance of Immigration and Settlement: Making Deep Federalism Work

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              Multinational democracies

               James Tully (2001)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                LJCS
                London Journal of Canadian Studies
                UCL Press
                2397-0928
                14 November 2019
                : 34
                : 1
                : 43-78
                Affiliations
                [* ] Correspondence: geoffrey.hale@ 123456uleth.ca
                [1 ] University of Lethbridge, Canada
                Article
                10.14324/111.444.ljcs.2019v34.004
                Copyright © 2019, Geoffrey Hale

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 8, Equations: 0, References: 94, Pages: 17

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                London Journal of Canadian Studies
                Volume 34, Issue 1

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