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      What level of support is required to enable secondary school teachers to effectively teach first aid? A randomized trial

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          Abstract

          In light of the UK government’s decision to make first aid education mandatory in schools, this article adds to the body of evidence to inform the implementation of this decision. Our research aimed to explore whether providing extra support to teachers increased their confidence to teach first aid, and whether this support influenced student learning outcomes. Thirty-five teachers were randomly allocated into two experimental groups and one control group. The first experimental group received support through a video medium, the second through an interactive webinar. The control group was provided with no support beyond the learning materials provided to all participants. Our analysis suggests that while providing support for teachers does not positively affect their confidence to teach first aid in the classroom, this increased support does positively affect the first aid knowledge of students.

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          Knowledge and willingness to teach cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a survey amongst 4273 teachers.

          Schoolteachers are expected to play a role in teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to schoolchildren, but little is known about their attitudes, actual knowledge and willingness to do so. We conducted a survey about CPR knowledge, preparedness to perform and teach CPR as well as attitude towards an alternative self-learning strategy amongst Flemish teachers. A questionnaire was developed consisting of four distinct parts: (1) Demographics; (2) CPR knowledge and skills level; (3) Attitude towards training and (4) Resuscitation experience. Content experts screened the questionnaire in view of content validity. One hundred and seventy-one students in Educational Sciences were each asked to interview 25 different teachers. A total of 4273 teachers participated in the study (primary school n=856; secondary school n=2562; higher education n=855). Of all respondents, 59% (2539/4273) had received previous CPR training with the highest proportion observed in primary schoolteachers (69%) and in the age group 21-30 years (68%). Mandatory CPR training at school was supported by 41% (1751/4273) of the teachers and only 36% was aware that CPR is now formally included in the secondary education curriculum. Sixty-one percent (2621/4273) did not feel capable and was not willing to teach CPR, mainly because of a perceived lack of knowledge in 50% (2151/2621). In addition 69% (2927/4273) felt incompetent to perform correct CPR and 73% (3137/4273) wished more training. Feeling incompetent and not willing to teach was related to the absence of previous training. Primary schoolteachers and the age group 21-30 years were most willing to teach CPR. Although many teachers mentioned previous CPR training, only a minority of mostly young and primary schoolteachers felt competent in CPR and was willing to teach it to their students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Kids save lives: a six-year longitudinal study of schoolchildren learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Who should do the teaching and will the effects last?

            This prospective longitudinal study over 6 years compared schoolteachers and emergency physicians as resuscitation trainers for schoolchildren. It also investigated whether pupils who were trained annually for 3 years retain their resuscitation skills after the end of this study.
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              What are the barriers to implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in secondary schools? A qualitative study

              Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools is recommended to increase bystander CPR and thereby survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but despite mandating legislation, low rates of implementation have been observed in several countries, including Denmark. The purpose of the study was to explore barriers to implementation of CPR training in Danish secondary schools. Design A qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus groups with school leadership and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning both within and across the interviews. Setting 8 secondary schools in Denmark. Schools were selected using strategic sampling to reach maximum variation, including schools with/without recent experience in CPR training of students, public/private schools and schools near to and far from hospitals. Participants The study population comprised 25 participants, 9 school leadership members and 16 teachers. Results School leadership and teachers considered it important for implementation and sustainability of CPR training that teachers conduct CPR training of students. However, they preferred external instructors to train students, unless teachers acquired the CPR skills which they considered were needed. They considered CPR training to differ substantially from other teaching subjects because it is a matter of life and death, and they therefore believed extraordinary skills were required for conducting the training. This was mainly rooted in their insecurity about their own CPR skills. CPR training kits seemed to lower expectations of skill requirements to conduct CPR training, but only among those who were familiar with such kits. Conclusions To facilitate implementation of CPR training in schools, it is necessary to have clear guidelines regarding the required proficiency level to train students in CPR, to provide teachers with these skills, and to underscore that extensive skills are not required to provide CPR. Further, it is important to familiarise teachers with CPR training kits.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                lre
                lre
                London Review of Education
                LRE
                UCL Press (UK )
                1474-8479
                21 July 2020
                : 18
                : 2
                : 236-249
                Affiliations
                The British Red Cross, UK
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Email: EOliver@ 123456redcross.org.uk
                Article
                10.14324/LRE.18.2.07
                Copyright © 2020 Ellis, Gordon, Forsyth, Ward and Oliver

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                References: 21, Pages: 15
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