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      The Future of Our Seas: Marine scientists and creative professionals collaborate for science communication

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          Abstract

          To increase awareness of the current challenges facing the marine environment, the Future of Our Seas (FOOS) project brought together the expertise of scientists, public engagement experts and creatives to train and support a group of marine scientists in effective science communication and innovative public engagement. This case study aims to inspire scientists and artists to use the FOOS approach in training, activity design and development support (hereafter called the ‘FOOS programme’) to collaboratively deliver novel and creative engagement activities. The authors reflect on the experiences of the marine scientists: (1) attending the FOOS communication and engagement training; (2) creating and delivering public engagement activities; (3) understanding our audience; and (4) collaborating with artists. The authors also share what the artists and audiences learned from participating in the FOOS public engagement activities. These different perspectives provide new insights for the field with respect to designing collaborative training which maximizes the impact of the training on participants, creative collaborators and the public. Long-term benefits of taking part in the FOOS programme, such as initiating future collaborative engagement activities and positively impacting the scientists’ research processes, are also highlighted.

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          Visual narrative structure.

           Neil Cohn (2013)
          Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a canonical narrative arc, followed by a discussion of complex structures that extend beyond the canonical schema. This demands that the canonical arc be reconsidered as a generative schema whereby any narrative category can be expanded into a node in a tree structure. Narrative "pacing" is interpreted as a reflection of various patterns of this embedding: conjunction, left-branching trees, center-embedded constituencies, and others. Following this, diagnostic methods are proposed for testing narrative categories and constituency. Finally, we outline the applicability of this theory beyond sequential images, such as to film and verbal discourse, and compare this theory with previous approaches to narrative and discourse. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
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            Simple Messages Help Set the Record Straight about Scientific Agreement on Human-Caused Climate Change: The Results of Two Experiments

            Human-caused climate change is happening; nearly all climate scientists are convinced of this basic fact according to surveys of experts and reviews of the peer-reviewed literature. Yet, among the American public, there is widespread misunderstanding of this scientific consensus. In this paper, we report results from two experiments, conducted with national samples of American adults, that tested messages designed to convey the high level of agreement in the climate science community about human-caused climate change. The first experiment tested hypotheses about providing numeric versus non-numeric assertions concerning the level of scientific agreement. We found that numeric statements resulted in higher estimates of the scientific agreement. The second experiment tested the effect of eliciting respondents’ estimates of scientific agreement prior to presenting them with a statement about the level of scientific agreement. Participants who estimated the level of agreement prior to being shown the corrective statement gave higher estimates of the scientific consensus than respondents who were not asked to estimate in advance, indicating that incorporating an “estimation and reveal” technique into public communication about scientific consensus may be effective. The interaction of messages with political ideology was also tested, and demonstrated that messages were approximately equally effective among liberals and conservatives. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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              Impact on the individual: what do patients and carers gain, lose and expect from being involved in research?

              Abstract Background: Study feasibility and deliverability can benefit from involving patients and carers in the research process, known as patient and public involvement (PPI). There is less evidence on the experiences of patients and carers themselves and we require more information across a range of studies, health conditions and research stages. Aims: This study explored how patients and carers in eight diagnostic research specialties have been involved in research, their motivations and the impact involvement had on them. Method: 143 patients and carers across the Clinical Research Network (CRN) responded to an online semi-structured questionnaire (developed using participatory methodology). Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed. Results: A range of benefits were reported, including providing a life focus and an improved relationship with illness. Less positive experiences regarding time and money and lack of acknowledgement were also reported, along with suggestions for improvement. Conclusions: PPI confers many benefits on patients and carers which could increase PPI recruitment if made explicit. More involvement in study recruitment and dissemination would increase the effectiveness of PPI input. Involving a more varied socioeconomic demographic and at an earlier stage is vital. Financial support for lower earners and greater feedback following involvement should also be explored.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rfa
                Research for All
                UCL Press (UK )
                2399-8121
                16 February 2021
                : 5
                : 1
                : 134-156
                Affiliations
                University of Edinburgh, UK
                University of St Andrews, UK
                Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) and University of the Highlands and Islands, UK
                University of Plymouth, UK
                Jacobs, London, UK
                University College London, UK
                University of Bristol, UK
                Seadream Education CIC, Kingsbridge, UK
                University of Stirling, UK
                Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, UK
                Templar Arts and Leisure Centre (TALC), Argyll, UK
                Aquarela Images, Macclesfield, UK
                King’s College London, UK
                Author notes
                Article
                10.14324/RFA.05.1.11
                Copyright © 2021 De Clippele, Michelotti, Findlay, Cartwright, Fang, Wheatley, Sladen, Scott-Somme, Harding, Jackson, Hepburn, Giannotti, Carroll, Heidtke, Worrall and De Meyer

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 2, References: 31, Pages: 24
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