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      Global Infectious Diseases in December 2022: Monthly Analysis

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            Abstract

            The emergence and reoccurrence of infectious diseases constitute a significant threat to human health. Data for this paper were mainly obtained from official websites, such as the WHO and national CDC websites. The report summarizes and analyzes information on infectious diseases for early outbreak monitoring from 24 November to 23 December 2022. Monkeypox cases declined in December 2022 with few deaths, while cholera infections have increased in African regions and war-torn countries. Most sub-Saharan countries are affected by insect-borne diseases, such as dengue, Lassa, and chikungunya fever.

            Main article text

            INTRODUCTION

            With SARS-CoV-2 becoming less virulent and many countries no longer reporting asymptomatic infections, it is difficult to collect statistics that reflect reality. Monkeypox cases have fallen by 90% from their peak in December 2022; however, it is concerning that cholera and measles cases are spreading in war-torn nations, where sanitation and vaccination are essential. Vector-related diseases, such as dengue fever, are prevalent in tropical regions and southeast Asian countries. Infections of the respiratory system, such as influenza and tuberculosis, are most common in developed countries within the northern hemisphere because of climate conditions and population flow. Global health authorities should pay attention to seasonal infectious diseases to prevent pandemics.

            A summary of global infectious diseases between 24 November and 23 December 2022 is presented based on Shusi Tech’s Global Epidemic Information Monitoring System (Fig 1). This summary provides reference values for local CDCs to contain relevant transmissible diseases.

            FIGURE 1 |

            Worldwide distribution of infectious diseases from 24 November to 23 December 2022.

            COVID-19

            The number of new cases in the western Pacific region remained high between 24 November and 23 December 2022, which is similar to the trend reported in November 2022(Fig 2A). There was no significant upward trend in deaths, which may be due to the approaching new year and the increased movement of festival populations (Fig 2B, D). New cases have also increased in the last month in Europe and the Americas, but this increase is considered normal given the fluctuations in the epidemic during the fourth quarter of 2022. More attention should be paid to significant epidemic changes in Europe and the United States in the spring of 2023.

            FIGURE 2 |

            Daily statistics of newly-confirmed cases and deaths worldwide. A, C: New cases have been reported daily on every continent. B, D: Continent-specific proportions of deaths (24 November to 23 December 2022; data were obtained from the World Health Organization website [https://covid19.who.int/]).

            It is worth noting that in this issue of the Journal we did not focus on the trend of COVID-19 in China. The new cases in each province have been classified as a class B infectious disease in China since COVID-19 and are subject to preventive and control measures.

            Monkeypox (Mpox)

            Mpox is effectively under control at this time and there are no new cases are reported on a daily basis [1]. To better visualize the prevalence of Mpox, a bubble chart representing the number of new daily cases is shown in Fig 3. Despite a decrease in the number of countries affected, Mpox has remained prevalent in the Americas and Europe between 23 November and 24 December 2022. Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Mexico and Chile, where new Mpox cases were reported nearly every day, were among the 12 countries in the Americas to report Mpox infections. Other countries, including Costa Rica, Canada, Honduras, Panama, and EI Salvador, had only a few cases (Table 1). To prevent an epidemic in the Americas, countries should dynamically monitor and analyze infection and epidemiologic data.

            TABLE 1 |

            Worldwide monkeypox cases reported between 24 November and 23 December 2022.

            Reported date (in 2022)LocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            24/10-30/10Nigeria901549(7)Nigeria CDC
            24/05-10/11Ghana656 (4)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01-10/11Cameroon79 (2)
            01/01-06/12106(3)
            06/05-21/11UK3720CDC UNI EROPA
            06/05-28/113725
            06/05-05/123730
            20/05-29/11French4109ProMED-mail
            20/05-22/124114
            18/05-28/11USA29288(14)US CDC
            18/05-02/1229630(19)
            06/05-05/123730
            18/05-21/1229740(20)
            20/05-06/12The Netherlands1251WHO
            20/05-14/121255
            01/05-06/12Portugal948
            27/05-06/12Argentina944(1)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            27/05-14/12985(1)
            19/05-30/11Canada1456WHO
            19/05-06/121459
            20/05-06/12Italy923
            28/05-23/11Mexico3292(4)
            28/05-30/113361(4)
            28/05-12/123455(4)
            28/05-21/123509(4)
            20/05-06/12Germany3673
            20/05-13/123675
            20/05-22/123676
            17/06-30/11Chile1311(2)
            17/06-13/121340(2)
            08/06-28/11Brazil10007(13)Brazil Health Ministry
            08/06-02/1210100(14)
            08/06-19/1210293(14)
            19/05-22/11Spain7404(3)Spain Ministry of Health
            19/05-29/117407(3)
            19/05-04/127408(3)
            19/05-09/127412(3)
            26/06-23/11Peru3444WHO
            26/06-29/113466
            26/06-04/123508
            26/06-12/123566
            26/06-19/123587
            26/06-23/123629(5)
            23/06-23/11Colombia3803
            23/06-29/113852
            23/06-05/123861
            23/06-09/123880
            23/06-19/123908
            23/06-23/123971
            01/01-20/11Democratic Republic of the Congo4984
            FIGURE 3 |

            Daily statistics of new confirmed monkeypox cases. A: Monkeypox cases confirmed in the Americas B: Monkeypox cases confirmed in the European region.

            Cholera

            Cholera has attracted widespread attention worldwide since the national authorities in Haiti reported a cholera outbreak in October 2022 [2, 3]. A large number of cholera infections were reported in December 2022 in Cameroon, Malawi, and Ethiopia (Table 2). The majority of these countries have tropical climates, poor sanitation, and scarce water resources, thus making it crucial to monitor cholera epidemics.

            TABLE 2 |

            Worldwide cholera cases reported between 24 November and 23 December 2022.

            Occurrence (in 2022)LocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            30/11-05/11The Philippines964743(50)The Philippine Ministry of Health
            01/01-12/115291(62)U. N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            01/01-26/115860(67)The Philippine Ministry of Health
            WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            27/11-03/1253(1)6062(69)
            13/11-19/11Afghanistan3734(1)222337(80)
            20/11-26/113419(3)225756(83)
            04/12-10/123686233449(85)
            12/11-17/123795(1)237258(86)
            19/06-02/11Iraq3063(19)UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            07/11-13/11Democratic Republic of the Congo405(8)13264(238)
            01/01-20/1113713(242)
            21/11-27/11431(4)14145(247)
            25/08-19/11Syria46409(97)
            25/08-26/1152013(98)
            25/08-03/1256879(98)
            04/12-10/12479261671(100)
            01/01-06/11Nigeria19513(483)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01-27/1120768(498)
            13/01-13/11Mozambique3858 (19)
            17/09-13/11Ethiopia399(17)
            27/08-24/11515 (20)
            27/08-03/12525(22)
            27/08-13/12654(24)
            27/08-19/12691(24)
            03/03-18/11Malawi8627(262)
            03/03-26/1110153(353)
            03/01-04/1211311(311)
            03/03-10/1212255(349)
            04/11-10/11Cameroon5113612(289)
            18/11-24/111813796(295)
            18/11-08/121415003(298)
            05/10-21/11Lebanon4061(20)Lebanese Public Health
            05/10-25/114337(20)
            05/10-06/124912(23)
            05/10-12/125136(23)
            07/11-13/11Somalia385(1)12734(72)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            14/11-20/11345(1)13079(73)
            21/11-27/1130413383(73)
            03/03-18/1213437(398)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            16/10-06/11Kenya242(8)
            16/10-05/121552(30)
            16/10-18/122959(55)
            30/09-20/11Haiti11039(938)
            30/09-25/1111837(223)
            30/09-28/1112233(228)
            30/09-04/1213454(281)
            30/09-11/1214777(291)
            12/12-18/122852(25)17629(316)
            Dengue

            Dengue, an insect-borne disease, is transmitted by mosquitoes [4]. Currently, South America and southeast Asia are experiencing hot and humid conditions that breed mosquitoes and flies, resulting in outbreaks of dengue virus infections. As of December 2022, dengue fever was endemic in Nicaragua, Peru, Mexico, and Colombia. Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam and Singapore, also reported dengue fever outbreaks, with a notable surge in dengue fever cases in Vietnam (Table 3).

            TABLE 3 |

            Worldwide dengue cases reported between 24 November and 23 December 2022.

            Occurrence (in 2022)LocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            30/10-05/11The Philippines602196728(642)Philippine Ministry of Health
            14/11-20/11Vietnam10634(3)314271(115)Outbreak News Today
            21/11-27/1111333(7)325604(122)
            12/12-18/127350(1)354282(133)
            01/01-20/11Republic of South Sudan1076CDC UNI EROPA
            27/11/2022People’s Republic of Bangladesh Malaysia513(3)56130(257)ProMED-mail
            29/11/2022426(4)57358(254)
            04/12/202230858927(251)
            17/12/202214561408(49)
            09/10-26/11Ecuador6851531(9)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            19/11-25/11Sri Lanka81557467Sri Lanka Ministry of Health
            01/01-20/11Nepal52557(60)Nepal Ministry of Health
            01/01-30/115395(62)
            01/01-11/1254232(67)
            13/11-19/11Nicaragua314682861WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            20/11-10/12844492305
            11/12-17/12258593890
            06/11-12/11Peru85264846(78)
            13/11-19/11159866444(76)
            20/11-26/11144667890(76)
            27/11-03/12149369383(80)
            27/11-17/1290771352(80)
            06/11-12/11Columbia153357885(44)
            13/11-19/11158259467(45)
            20/11-03/12352062987(45)
            04/12-10/12189064877(46)
            6/111-12/11Mexico270250889(29)
            13/11-19/11238653275(29)
            20/11-26/11150454779(29)
            04/12-10/12142757728(53)
            06/11-19/11El Salvador24016193
            13/11-19/11Panama18610144(4)
            01/01-04/12Senegal156
            15/04-27/11Sao Tome and Principe1137(8)CDC UNI EROPA
            01/01-10/11Reunion Island1189(2)
            27/11-03/12Singapore24231003Singapore Environment Agency
            04/12-10/1232831331
            11/12-17/1229631626
            13/11-19/11Malaysia159354570(37)Malaysia Ministry of Health
            27/11-03/121935(2)58239(39)
            11/12-17/121950(5)62060(49)
            01/01-05/12Pakistan76210(130)ProMED-mail
            01/01-12/1218933(49)
            26/11-02/12Sri Lanka105458916Sri Lanka Ministry of Health
            Measles

            Measles is an acute, febrile viral infection that is highly contagious, preventable, and highly contagious [5]. Since 24 November 2022, measles has become widespread in African countries, such as the People’s Republic of Congo, Uganda, Nigeria, and the Republic of South Sudan. Furthermore, Afghanistan has reported a large number of new measles infections (Table 4), which is mainly due to economic backwardness, warfare, and the absence of vaccines [6].

            TABLE 4 |

            Worldwide measles cases reported between 24 November and 23 December 2022.

            Occurrence (in 2022)LocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            01/01-30/10Central Africa1349(3)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01-13/11Uganda2893(11)
            01/01-27/112956(11)
            01/01-06/11Cameroon3998(58)
            13/12/2021-02/11-2022Liberia7942(81)
            13/11-16/118177(85)
            01/01-30/118338(85)
            01/01-06/11Republic of South Sudan1733(12)
            01/01-04/122471(31)
            01/01-04/12Senegal436(2)
            01/01-27/11Mali728(1)
            01/01-11/12751(1)
            01/01-18/12Ethiopia13294(76)
            10/04-04/12Zimbabwe7720(747)
            01/01-27/11Chad2956(11)
            01/01-11/12Chad3026(11)
            01/01-03/12Brazil3428(43)
            01/01-06/11Democratic Republic of the Congo6863(132)
            01/01-04/124302(58)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            01/01-13/11Niger13642(27)
            13/11-19/11Afghanistan556(2)73345(382)
            20/11-26/11655(3)74010(385)
            12/11-17/1269975928(386)
            31/10-13/11Somalia47615619
            01/09-30/11South Africa99Outbreak News today
            01/01-06/12India66433WHO
            01/01-06/12Pakistan15281
            01/01-06/12Yemen14950
            01/01-06/12Indonesia12330
            01/01-06/12People’s Republic of Bangladesh Malaysia5617
            01/01-06/12C·te d’lvoire5623
            01/01-06/12Nigeria27616
            07/11-13/113193(28)130565(1611)
            01/01-04/12134397(1671)
            01/01-03/12Mexico2426WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01-03/12Venezuela1698
            01/01-03/12Colombia1061
            01/01-03/12El Salvador555
            01/01-03/12Balawan511
            Influenza

            As a result of rapid and violent cooling in December 2022, North America was highly susceptible to influenza epidemics. Globally, the number of influenza cases increased compared to the previous month, with the latest cases occurring in Australia, Russia, and Mexico. As shown in Table 5, there is an upward trend in the number of influenza cases in Canada and the United States, where the number is likely to peak soon.

            TABLE 5 |

            Worldwide influenza cases reported Between 11/24/2022 to 12/23/2022.

            Occurrence (in 2022)LocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            03/01-20/11French21140WHO
            03/01-20/11Denmark16538
            13/11-19/11Canada589114455Public Health Agency of Canada
            20/11-26/11824223294
            27/11-03/12985534413
            04/12-10/12939344354
            05/12/2022Taiwan, China1China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            13/11-19/11USA2179675545U.S. CDC
            20/11-26/1132733113482
            4/12-10/1231442
            03/01-27/11Norway14517WHO
            03/01-27/11Switzerland12385
            03/01-27/11Argentina23323
            03/01-27/11Chile11743
            03/01-27/11Mexico6658
            03/01-27/11Brazil3494
            03/01-11/12Portugal12800
            03/01-11/12Russia5766
            28/11-11/12Australia1608230175Australian Department of Health
            Malaria

            Infected mosquitoes transmit malaria between humans by carrying Plasmodium species. During December 2022, > 600,000 new malaria infections were reported in the People’s Republic of Congo, as well as Nigeria and Chad (Table 6). It is likely that malaria is easier to spread in Africa because of the hot, humid climate and poor sanitation.

            TABLE 6 |

            Worldwide malaria cases reported between 24 November and 23 December 2022.

            Occurrence (in 2022)LocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            13/11-19/11USA8911475US CDC
            07/11-13/11Democratic Republic of the Congo692165(340)12245933(18733)UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            21/11-27/11672138(322)31210240(19487)UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            01/01-12/12Panama5710(1)Panama Health Ministry
            18/09-24/09Afghanistan391816WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            29/08-25/09Nigeria72985674055UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            19/09-02/10Chad84152795780
            01/09-30/09Thailand1302050Thai Health Ministry
            08/12/2022Guinea1Outbreak news today
            01/01-09/12Chile27ProMED-mail
            Other infectious

            Between 24 November and 23 December 2022, a variety of infectious diseases, including poliomyelitis, diphtheria, brucellosis, salmonellosis, legionellosis, Tsutsugamushi rickettsiae, chickenpox, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever, leishmaniasis, rotavirus, Rift Valley fever, mumps, plague, whooping cough, West Nile fever, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, Ebola virus, Lassa fever, and tuberculosis, have been reported globally and have sporadic transmission in various regions or countries (Table 7). There is a broader range of countries affected by Chikungunya fever and polio. There is a rapid spread of mumps, viral hepatitis, and legionellosis in Chinese Taiwan and Japan. The number of chickenpox cases in Korea to rise. To avoid pandemics, we should closely monitor infectious disease dynamics.

            TABLE 7 |

            Worldwide other infectious cases reported between 24 November and 23 December 2022.

            Occurrence (in 2022)LocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            Poliomyelitis
            16/11-22/11Nigeria4Global Poliomyelitis Network
            16/11-22/11Uganda4
            16/11-22/11Democratic Republic of the Congo3
            16/11-22/11Ethiopia2
            23/11-29/11Yemen4
            23/11-29/11Democratic Republic of the Congo1
            30/11-06/12Madagascar3
            30/11-06/12Mozambique2
            30/11-06/12Ghana1
            30/11-06/12Togo1
            Diphtheria
            01/01-19/11People’s Republic of Bangladesh Malaysia358(2)WHO
            20/11-26/1114371(2)
            04/12-10/1210391(2)
            01/01-22/11Germany64CDC UNI EROPA
            01/01-13/1259
            01/01-22/11Austria42
            01/01-22/11UK40
            28/11-04/12757
            05/12-11/12562
            01/01-13/12Belgium20
            Brucellosis
            01/01-07/12Mexico58Outbreak News Today
            Salmonellosis
            13/11-19/11USA3364254US CDC
            27/11-03/1245844762
            4/12-10/1225245580
            29/11/2022Norway31Outbreak News Today
            28/11-06/1242
            01/01-30/11New Zealand75674New Zealand Ministry of Health
            28/11-11/12Australia4299792Australian Ministry of Health
            Legionellosis
            07/11-13/11Japan241936Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            14/11-20/11261969
            21/11-27/11271999
            28/11-10/12222023
            05/12-11/12262060
            20/11-26/11USA335511US CDC
            04/12-10/12315812
            01/01-19/11Hong Kong, China76China Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection
            06/11-12/11Taiwan, China6291China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            13/11-19/119300
            20/11-26/1115315
            27/11-03/1213328
            04/12-10/1215473
            Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever
            01/01-30/11Russia59Outbreak News Today
            01/01-19/11Afghanistan308(15)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            01/01-26/11384(15)
            Viral hepatitis
            01/01-05/11Republic of South Sudan3592(26)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            06/11-12/11Taiwan, China13423China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            13/11-19/117430
            20/11-26/1115445
            27/11-03/1213458
            04/12-10/1215473
            11/2022Thailand2754808Thai Health Ministry
            04/12-10/12Korea1137918Korea CDC
            Leptospirosis
            30/11-05/11The Philippines40(6)2991(387)Philippine Ministry of Health
            11/2022Thailand262(3)3132(38)Thai Health Ministry
            05/11-11/11Sri Lanka1935228
            12/11-18/112225491
            19/11-25/111825708
            26/11-02/121865940
            03/12-09/121906259
            Tsutsugamushi rickettsiae
            11/2022Thailand412(1)5485(2)Thai Health Ministry
            01/01-21/11India218(1)ProMED-mail
            13/11-19/11Korea4844722Korea CDC
            20/11-26/113475567
            Chickenpox
            13/11-19/11Korea41716050Korea CDC
            20/11-26/1148416548
            04/12-10/1242117504
            11/12-17/1237917934
            11/2022Thailand70711624Thai Health Ministry
            Mumps
            06/11-12/11Taiwan, China16245China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            13/11-19/1111256
            20/11-26/1118274
            27/11-03/128282
            11/12-17/12Korea1326196Korea CDC
            Plague
            01/01-13/11Democratic Republic of the Congo635(15)UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            Lassa fever
            14/11-20/11Nigeria103(1)7492(178)Nigeria CDC
            21/11-27/11987590(178)
            28/11-04/12171(3)7761(181)
            05/12-11/12146(1)7907(183)
            06/01-01/12Liberia67(22)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            06/01-13/1159(19)
            Ebola virus
            20/09-27/11Uganda142(56)Outbreak News Today
            Whooping cough
            01/01-19/11Bolivia27ProMED-mail
            01/01-19/11Afghanistan810(15)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            01/01-26/11836(15)
            04/12-10/1234916(15)
            11/12-17/1230946(15)
            01/01-30/11South Africa408Outbreak News Today
            01/01-08/12230(7)ProMED-mail
            Tuberculosis
            13/11-19/11USA534486US CDC
            27/11-03/12694667
            11/2022Thailand4638042(11)Thai Health Ministry
            Korea CDC
            13/11-19/11Korea37915048
            04/12-10/1236015945
            11/12-17/1239716290
            07/11-13/11Japan22012718Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            14/11-20/1122613054
            21/11-27/1118613288
            28/11-04/1221313555
            West Nile
            01/01-29/11USA970(74)US CDC
            01/01-13/121007(76)
            Yellow fever
            01/11-15/11Uganda2249(7)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            13/12/2022Sierra Leone1
            07/11-13/11Democratic Republic of the Congo25897(23)UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            21/11-27/1126970(23)
            Zika virus
            06/11-12/11Paraguay156446Paraguay Health Ministry
            13/11-19/11143589
            20/11-26/1157646
            01/01-03/1216662
            01/01-12/11Bolivia155WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01-03/13El Salvador167
            23/10-03/12The Republic of Guatemala681685
            Chikungunya virus
            01/01-05/11The Philippines551The Philippine Ministry of Health
            01/01-19/11Malaysia692Malaysia Ministry of Health
            Paraguay Health Ministry
            06/11-12/11Paraguay247740
            13/11-19/11194934
            20/11-26/112001134
            27/11-03/121201254
            11/12-17/126961997
            01/01-19/11Peru319WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01-26/11322
            01/01-03/12335
            01/01-12/11Bolivia198
            01/01-19/11Brazil17019(85)CDC UNI EROPA
            01/01-23/11India10859
            01/01-10/11Thailand842
            01/01-27/111109
            Leishmaniasis
            31/01-05/12Kenya2090(10)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            Rotavirus
            28/11-11/12Australian5815529Australian Department of Health
            Ross River virus disease
            28/11-11/12Australian742812Australian Department of Health
            Rift Valley Fever
            28/11/2022Senegal1Outbreak News Today
            29/8-05/12 Mauritania 52(23)

            CONCLUSION

            The World Health Organization and National Health Council epidemiologic websites were used as sources of data. It is possible to predict prevalence rates and assess epidemic prevention and control based on analyses of these data. The southern hemisphere is currently in the middle of summer, with frequent outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, Zika virus, and yellow fever, due to the hot, humid climate. The People’s Republic of Congo, Brazil, and Uganda, Nigeria and Peru in the southern hemisphere are mainly affected. USA, Canada, Australia, Norway, Korea, and Japan where in the northern hemisphere, influenza, tuberculosis, diphtheria, and legionellosis infections have increased significantly with the onset of winter and cold temperatures. As a result, early warning systems for climate-induced infectious diseases are necessary to prevent major outbreaks.

            As of December 2022, cholera was prevalent throughout the world, primarily in economically backward African countries, like Malawi and Ethiopia, as well as war-torn nations, like Afghanistan and Syria. There is a shortage of the cholera vaccine because the number of infected people continues to rise, making responding to the epidemic even more challenging. The local CDC does not have definitive evidence for several new infectious diseases in December 2022, including malaria, diphtheria, and Rift Valley fever, which are prevalent in some areas but not reported promptly. In conclusion, it is encouraging that the global outbreak of COVID-19 and Mpox has abated and that there have been no new cases of Ebola or malaria in Uganda since 27 November 2022.

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            2. Bharati K, Bhattacharya SK. Cholera outbreaks in South-East AsiaCholera Outbreaks. Nair GB, Takeda Y. 2014. Vol. 379:p. 87–116

            3. Chao DL, Longini IM, Morris JG. Modeling cholera outbreaksCholera Outbreaks. Nair GB, Takeda Y. 2014. Vol. 379:p. 195–209

            4. Dayyab FM. Poliomyelitis in the United States during COVID-19 and monkeypox outbreak: Totally vaccine preventable diseases? Int J Surg. 2022. 106

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Zoonoses
            Zoonoses
            Zoonoses
            Compuscript (Shannon, Ireland )
            2737-7466
            2737-7474
            28 January 2023
            : 3
            : 1
            : e994
            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China
            [2 ]School of Computer and Information Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, Fujian, China
            [3 ]Shenzhen Data Thinking Corporation, Shenzhen, China
            Author notes
            *Corresponding authors: E-mail: ericheshi@ 123456163.com (SH); wanhood@ 123456163.com , Tel: +86-13538047813 (WY); 1135529689@ 123456qq.com , Tel: +86-13602601597 (DG)

            #Taihan Li and Qi Xiang have contributed equally to this work.

            Article
            10.15212/ZOONOSES-2022-1005
            bb6a4e2b-5e43-4265-8808-af4ea802d058
            Copyright © 2023 The Authors.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            History
            : 11 January 2023
            : 13 January 2023
            : 13 January 2023
            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 7, References: 6, Pages: 15
            Funding
            Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program of China
            Award ID: 2022YFC2302700
            Funded by: Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: 2021A1515220084
            Funded by: Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: 2020B1111160001
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: ZDSYS20210623092001003
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: GJHZ20200731095604013
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: JSGG20220301090003004
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: 201906133000069
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: SGLH20180625171602058
            Dayong Gu and Qun Su conceived and designed the project. The data were collected by Taihan Li and Qi Xiang. The manuscript was written by Taihan Li and Qi Xiang. Shiping He and Taihan Li revised the manuscript. Dayong Gu supervised the study. This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China [No. 2022YFC2302700], Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation [Nos. 2021A1515220084 and 2020B1111160001], Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation [ZDSYS20210623092001003, GJHZ20200731095604013, JSGG20220301090003004, and Nos. 201906133000069 and SGLH20180625171602058].
            Categories
            Short Communication

            Parasitology,Animal science & Zoology,Molecular biology,Public health,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
            Cholera,Infectious disease,Dengue

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