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      Global Infectious Diseases in January 2023: Monthly Analysis



            Infectious diseases are a major threat to global health and the economic stability of societies worldwide. To prevent outbreaks, monitoring the growth trends of infectious diseases appears to be particularly important and necessary. Herein, data from epidemiological websites, such as the World Health Organization and National Health Council are used to illustrate the outbreak trends for infectious diseases worldwide. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, a global resurgence in other infectious diseases has been observed, particularly influenza in the United States. Proper surveillance and effective strategies are urgently required to keep emerging infectious diseases under control.

            Main article text


            Infectious diseases, with their unpredictable and far-reaching consequences, have been an important part of human history. To control the spread of infectious diseases worldwide, and protect people’s lives and safety, regular analysis of global infectious disease cases is critical. In the past month, cases of COVID-19 and monkeypox (Mpox) have significantly decreased. On January 30, 2023, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the COVID-19 pandemic continues to constitute a public health emergency of international concern, regarding the management of the COVID-19 pandemic transition period and mitigating potential negative effects. Meanwhile, the United States is having its worst influenza season since the COVID-19 pandemic. Dengue, measles and cholera remain public health concerns worldwide. Simultaneously, more attention should also be paid to certain sporadic infectious diseases, such as Chikungunya fever, legionellosis, poliomyelitis, avian influenza and scarlet fever, to avoid global pandemics. The global prevalence of low-incidence infectious diseases from December 24, 2022 to January 23, 2023 was mapped by using the Global Outbreak Information Surveillance System (Fig 1).

            FIGURE 1 |

            Worldwide distribution of infectious diseases from December 24, 2022 to January 23, 2023.


            COVID-19 has rapidly overwhelmed the world since its sudden outbreak in 2019. In the past month, global cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection reached more than 50 million according to the WHO. The Western Pacific region had the largest proportion, at 89.86%, as compared with only 0.04% in the Eastern Mediterranean region and 0.05% in the Southeast Asia region. Although the epidemic was severe in the Western Pacific region, daily new cases of COVID-19 decreased continually from a peak above 5 million to a trough of approximately 100,000, thus indicating that effective strategies might have been able to prevent further local spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Fig 2A, B).

            FIGURE 2 |

            Statistics on new confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 worldwide daily. A, C: New cases and deaths due to COVID-19 have been reported daily on every continent (The primary coordinate on the left is the columnar ordinate, the secondary coordinate on the right is the broken line ordinate). B, D: Continent-specific proportions of new confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 (December 24, 2022 to January 23, 2023; data were obtained from the World Health Organization website: https://COVID19.who.int/).

            Owing to continuing mutation of SARS-CoV-2, the ongoing pandemic has resulted in severe morbidity and mortality in the past 3 years. The global deaths due to COVID-19 reached approximately 134,000 over the past month, among which the Western Pacific region accounted for the highest proportion (67.08%), followed by the Americas (16.52%), Europe (15.66%), Southeast Asia (0.5%), the Eastern Mediterranean (0.16%) and Africa (0.08%). The daily deaths in the Western Pacific region remained above 1,000, peaking at approximately 4,500 in the middle of the past month, then decreasing to approximately 1,500 (Fig 2C, D).


            Mpox, an emerging zoonotic disease, has become a global concern, owing to the increasing number of human outbreaks in recent months [1]. Approximately 1,400 Mpox cases were reported by the WHO in the past month, occurring primarily in the Americas (Fig 3A). The daily reported Mpox cases in different regions are described in detail in Fig 3B-D. Compared with the previous epidemic data released by the WHO, the global Mpox infections substantially decreased over the past month. However, strategies such as vaccination with smallpox vaccine remain necessary to control the re-emergence of the Mpox virus.

            FIGURE 3 |

            Statistics of new confirmed Mpox cases from December 24, 2022 to January 23, 2023. A: Confirmed Mpox cases and deaths by continent (The primary coordinate on the left is the columnar ordinate, the secondary coordinate on the right is the broken line ordinate). B: Mpox cases confirmed in the regions of the Americas. C: Mpox cases confirmed in the European region. D: Mpox cases confirmed in the Western Pacific region. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization website (https://worldhealthorg.shinyapps.io/mpx_global/#3_Detailed_case_data).


            Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an infectious disease occurring mainly in developing countries with deficiencies in water quality [2]. The disease remains endemic in approximately 17 countries, primarily Afghanistan and Syria, according to the data shown in Table 1. In 2022, the cumulative reported cholera cases exceeded 240,000 in Afghanistan (Table 1). Thus, oral cholera vaccines should be recommended for use in resource-limited settings to control and prevent outbreaks. Furthermore, improving environmental health conditions, such as water and sanitation, remains an effective approach to limiting the spread of cholera.

            TABLE 1 |

            Worldwide cholera cases reported between 24/12/2022 and 23/01/2023.

            OccurrenceLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            02/12/2022–08/12/2022Cameroon14WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–27/11/2022Nigeria20768(498)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            16/10/2022–18/12/2022Kenya2959(55)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–10/12/2022Philippines6126(74)Philippine Department of Health
            13/01/2022–18/12/2022Mozambique3930(21)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Zimbabwe316342(76)Philippine Ministry of Health
            20/10/2022–28/12/2022Dominican Republic10WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            18/12/2022–24/12/2022Afghanistan2819(1)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            26/12/2022–01/01/2023Haiti2877(89)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            05/10/2022–28/12/2022Lebanon5698(23)Lebanese Ministry of Public Health
            05/12/2022–11/12/2022Somalia26513907(73)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            03/03/2022–18/12/2022Malawi13437(398)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–30/12/2022Democratic Republic of Congo14290(262)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2023–06/01/2023Burundi42WHO Regional Office for Africa
            27/08/2022–13/12/2022Ethiopia654(24)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            25/08/2022–07/01/2023Syria77561(100)U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs


            Dengue, the most common mosquito-borne disease, is caused by four antigenically related but distinct serotypes dengue virus (DENV-1 to DENV-4) transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitos [3]. The data in Table 2 show that the greatest burden of the disease was reported in tropical and subtropical regions, such as Brazil, where the cumulative dengue cases in the entire year of 2022 exceeded 2 million. Meanwhile, more than 200,000 dengue cases were found in Vietnam, Zimbabwe and the Philippines (Table 2). Without effective intervention measures, Dengue is predicted to increase in terms of both disease burden and geographic range in the future.

            TABLE 2 |

            Worldwide dengue cases reported between 24/12/2022 and 23/01/2023.

            OccurrenceLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022Brazil29262363490(929)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Zimbabwe327220705(722)Philippine Ministry of Health
            12/12/2022–18/12/2022Vietnam7350(1)354282(133)Outbreak News Today
            26/12/2022–01/01/20234275367729(140)WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Malaysia1950(5)62060(49)Malaysian Ministry of Health
            18/12/2022–24/12/2022Singapore27231892Singapore Environment Agency
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Cambodia165466531(46)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Peru90771352(80)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022Colombia168969497(48)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            18/12/2022–31/12/2022Mexico219059918(53)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Nicaragua258593890WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/12/2022–31/12/2022Bangladesh5024(27)62382(281)Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2023–15/01/2023399(3)Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
            10/12/2022–16/12/2022Sri Lanka124161773Sri Lanka Ministry of Health
            01/01/2022–31/12/2022Nepal54784(88)Nepal Ministry of Health
            01/12/2022–31/12/2022Thailand2897(2)Thailand Ministry of Public Health
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Venezuela35610835(17)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Panama19110918(4)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Bolivia92414660(9)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            04/12/2022–10/12/2022Philippines699(1)216927(693)Philippine Department of Health


            Measles is a vaccine-preventable, highly contagious disease caused by an RNA virus [4]. However, owing to the limited immunization campaigns and political conflicts in many countries, a global resurgence in measles has been observed since 2016. In the past month, many countries have faced measles outbreaks, particularly Afghanistan (Table 3). The eradication of measles is feasible, but effective vaccination, access to the healthcare systems and public engagement are urgently needed.

            TABLE 3 |

            Worldwide measles cases reported between 24/12/2022 and 23/01/2023.

            OccurrenceLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            01/01/2022–28/12/2022South Sudan2745(31)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            10/04/2022–04/12/2022Zimbabwe7720(747)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            18/12/2022–24/12/2022Afghanistan592(2)76519(388)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            28/11/2022–11/12/2022Somalia49016578(629)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Brazil3569WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Mexico2493WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–31/12/2022Venezuela1859WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–31/12/2022Cuba1594WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Colombia1091WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Paraguay575WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–31/12/2022Niger14108(32)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–18/12/2022Senegal468(2)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            13/06/2022–25/12/2022Zambia2137(31)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            11/10/2022–17/12/2022South Africa227WHO Regional Office for Africa
            18/12/2022–24/12/202270Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2022–11/01/2023Ivory Coast5993WHO
            01/01/2022–18/12/2022Ethiopia13294(76)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–11/12/2022Central African republic1447(3)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            26/06/2022–11/12/2022Kenya392(2)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–11/12/2022Chad302611)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–11/12/2022Mali751(1)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–18/12/2022Democratic Republic of the Congo139435(1740)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Chile285WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Ecuador248(1)WHO Regional Office for the Americas


            Seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by the influenza A and B viruses [5]. It is generally prevalent from January to March and July to August. According to the U.S. CDC, the 2022–2023 influenza season, in which 16,000–48,000 people have died from influenza, is the worst influenza season since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although influenza activity is currently declining with respect to that in December (Table 4), a second influenza peak may occur in the future, as has been observed in some influenza seasons, according to John Huddleston, a staff scientist at the Bedford Laboratory at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center. The epidemic of influenza provides a reminder that COVID-19 is not the only viral disease that must be considered, and that influenza remains a major public health threat.

            TABLE 4 |

            Worldwide influenza cases reported between 24/12/2022 and 23/01/2023.

            OccurrenceLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            28/11/2022–11/12/2022Australia1608230175Australian Department of Health
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022Canada2841Public Health Agency of Canada
            01/01/2023–07/01/2023Zimbabwe1749Public Health Agency of Canada
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022U.S.A.33202U.S. CDC
            01/01/2022–25/12/2022Malaysia4867WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific
            01/01/2022–25/12/2022Singapore890WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific
            01/01/2022–25/12/2022Laos629WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific


            Chikungunya fever, a febrile disease, is caused by chikungunya virus, and is associated with long-term sequelae of arthralgia and myalgia [6]. It is distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions where the winter temperature is above 18°C. In the past month, some cases were reported in Malaysia, Peru, Guatemala, Paraguay and Brazil (Table 5). Among them, Paraguay has had a marked increase and high number of cases. The proximity of mosquito breeding sites to human habitation areas is a risk factor for Chikungunya fever; therefore, prevention and control measures should focus on limiting hospitable environments for mosquitoes and removing containers in which mosquitoes breed.

            TABLE 5 |

            Worldwide chikungunya fever cases reported between 24/12/2022 and 23/01/2023.

            OccurrenceLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            01/01/2022–27/11/2022Thailand1109European Union CDC
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Bolivia232WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Brazil172082(93)Outbreak News Today
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022339265289(75)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Paraguay6961997Paraguay Health Ministry
            27/11/2022–24/12/2022Guatemala1331933WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Peru399WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–31/12/2022Venezuela189WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–31/12/2022El Salvador154WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Malaysia22785Malaysian Ministry of Health


            Legionellosis is a severe respiratory disease found in not only natural habitats, such as freshwater reservoirs, watercourses, moist soil and composted material, but also in man-made water systems, such as plumbing systems, air-conditioning units, bathtubs and showers [7]. Outbreaks of legionellosis have occasionally been reported worldwide (Table 6).

            TABLE 6 |

            Worldwide legionellosis cases reported between 24/12/2022 and 23/01/2023.

            OccurrenceLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2022Data source
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Taiwan, China12349China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            01/01/2022–24/12/2022Hong Kong, China80China Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection
            01/01/2023–07/01/2023U.S.A.31U.S. CDC
            12/12/2022–18/12/2022Japan202085Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases


            Beyond those described above, many other infectious diseases have been endemic worldwide in the past month. Detailed data are listed in Table 7, including those for diphtheria; Salmonella; Leptospira; hepatitis C; rickettsia tsutsugamushi; chickenpox; mumps; Lassa fever; whooping cough; Zika virus; hantavirus; typhoid fever; tuberculosis; West Nile fever; bacillary dysentery; Nipah virus; avian influenza; rift valley fever; amoebic dysentery; meningitis; scarlet fever; melioidosis; hepatitis A; yellow fever; anthrax; pneumococcal infection; norovirus; campylobacteriosis; hand, foot and mouth disease; hepatitis B; Crimean hemorrhagic fever; enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; poliomyelitis; and malaria. To avoid pandemics, these endemic diseases must be monitored.

            TABLE 7 |

            Worldwide other infectious cases reported between 24/12/2022 and 23/01/2023.

            OccurrenceLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 01/01/2022Data source
            14/12/2022–21/12/2022Germany52116European Union CDC
            12/12/2022–18/12/2022United Kingdom567British Health and Safety Authority
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022U.S.A.26246542U.S. CDC
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Singapore161317Health Ministry of Singapore
            07/12/2022–06/01/2023Sweden22Outbreak News Today
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Philippines124240(499)Philippine Ministry of Health
            10/12/2022–16/12/2022Sri Lanka1956544Sri Lanka Ministry of Health
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Puerto Rico944(14)Outbreak News Today
            12/2022Thailand274(4)3601(44)Thailand Ministry of Health
            Hepatitis C
            18/12/2022–24/12/2022Taiwan, China22497China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022Korea1478396Korea CDC
            Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi
            02/01/2023–08/01/2023Japan15Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Taiwan, China8269China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            18/12/2022–24/12/2022Korea37718386Korea CDC
            12/2022Thailand70512793Thailand Ministry of Health
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022Taiwan, China10306China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022Singapore3168The Health Ministry of Singapore
            2022.12.18–2022.12.24Korea1396345Korea CDC
            Lassa Fever
            12/12/2022–18/12/2022Nigeria747981(183)Nigeria CDC
            Whooping Cough
            18/12/2022–24/12/2022Afghanistan86(2)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            Zika Virus
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022Bolivia173WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2022–17/12/2022El Salvador171WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            04/12/2022–17/12/2022Brazil16432892(4)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            18/12/2022–24/12/2022Paraguay137785Paraguay Health Ministry
            04/12/2022–31/12/2022Guatemala321717WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            Hantavirus Infections
            22/12/2022–31/12/20223Outbreak News Today
            Typhoid Fever
            01/01/2022–10/12/2022Philippines15092(62)Outbreak News Today
            11/12/2022–17/12/20229515619(62)Philippine Ministry of Health
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022Korea34716884Korea CDC
            25/12/2022–31/12/2022U.S.A.555537U.S. CDC
            12/12/2022–18/12/2022Japan20614093Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            12/2022Thailand5078944(11)Thailand Ministry of Health
            West Nile Fever
            01/01/2022–10/01/2023U.S.A.1035(79)U.S. CDC
            Bacillary Dysentery
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022U.S.A.8012786U.S. CDC
            11/11/2022–22/12/2022Sweden30Outbreak News Today
            Nipah Virus
            01/01/2023–10/01/2023Bangladesh1Outbreak News Today
            Avian Influenza (H5N1)
            10/01/2023Ecuador1Outbreak News Today
            Rift Valley Fever
            29/08/2022–25/12/2022Mauritania53(24)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            Amoebic Dysentery
            12/2022Thailand1141245Thailand Ministry of Health
            01/01/2012–07/01/2023Taiwan, China9China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            31/10/2022–21/12/2022Niger279(9)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            02/06/2022–30/12/2022Democratic Republic of Congo165(26)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            Scarlet Fever
            12/12/2022–18/12/2022United Kingdom19736British Health and Safety Authority
            17/12/2022–23/12/2022Hong Kong, China346(7)China Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection
            Hepatitis A
            08/01/2023–14/01/2023Korea20Korea CDC
            Yellow Fever
            28/11/2022–04/12/2022Cameroon15WHO Regional Office for Africa
            31/03/2022–29/11/2022Republic of the Congo4WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–14/12/2022Zimbabwe263WHO Regional Office for Africa
            13/03/2022–04/12/2022South Sudan141(5)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            Pneumococcal Infection
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022U.S.A.26713640U.S. CDC
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Taiwan, China14192China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            15/12/2022–20/12/2022U.S.A.298U.S. CDC
            11/12/2022–17/12/2022Singapore6563Singapore Ministry of Health
            Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
            12/2022Thailand275398982Thailand Ministry of Health
            Hepatitis B
            12/2022Thailand2665304Thailand Ministry of Health
            Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever
            12/07/2022–13/12/2022Uganda6(2)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            01/01/2022–24/12/2022Afghanistan388(15)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            01/01/2022–25/12/2022Iraq1360(114)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
            12/12/2022–18/12/2022Japan433272Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            21/12/2022–27/12/2022Democratic Republic of the Congo1(cVDPV1)Global Poliomyelitis Network
            14/12/2022–20/12/2022Sudan1(cVDPV2)Global Poliomyelitis Network
            14/12/2022–20/12/2022Yemen1(cVDPV2)Global Poliomyelitis Network
            21/12/2022–27/12/2022Chad3(cVDPV2)Global Poliomyelitis Network
            21/12/2022–27/12/2022Cameroon1(cVDPV2)Global Poliomyelitis Network
            28/12/2022–03/01/2023Algeria1(cVDPV2)Global Poliomyelitis Network
            28/12/2022–03/01/2023Central African Republic1(cVDPV2)Global Poliomyelitis Network
            01/01/2022–25/12/2022Sudan1649627(113)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            01/09/2022–25/12/2022Pakistan777226WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            01/01/2022–11/12/2022Zimbabwe273297WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean


            COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented global health crisis since its outbreak in 2019, and the introduction of several vaccines has brought hope to a virus-weary world. However, the continuing emergence of variants of SARS-CoV-2 has prompted a question of whether COVID-19 eradication remains possible, given the limited health care resources and fatigue of the epidemic. This question has no conclusive answer. However, multiple strategies including proper sanitation and hygiene, efficacious vaccines and antiviral drugs would accelerate the elimination process.

            In this influenza season, many individuals in America have been affected by influenza, and a second influenza peak is projected to emerge in the near future. The reasons for the rebound in influenza virus might be attributable to the relaxation of public health and social distancing strategies, and low population influenza immunity. Therefore, surveillance of influenza activity is important in the post-COVID-19 era. In contrast, the number of global Mpox infection cases significantly decreased in the past month, although surveillance systems and routine immunization programs still must be improved to control further spread of Mpox virus.

            Mosquito-borne diseases, including dengue, Chikungunya fever and Zika, remain prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions, such as Brazil. Emergence and re-emergence of arboviruses is influenced by climate change factors, including rising temperatures, precipitation and human activity. Human activities involving travel, urbanization, deforestation and reforestation affect virus-mosquito-primate host interactions, and consequently viral transmission in both domestic and wild environments. Thus, efficient prevention of arboviral disease outbreaks must include mosquito control strategies that interrupt human-vector contact.

            Overall, the outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases occurred primarily in the regions of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia, given their geographical locations and climatic conditions. The public health infrastructure and response efficiency of individual countries may determine outbreak severity. Therefore, governments and public health authorities must adopt comprehensive and effective strategies tailored to local epidemics, to mitigate or even eliminate the threats caused by infectious diseases.


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            Author and article information

            Compuscript (Shannon, Ireland )
            18 February 2023
            : 3
            : 1
            : e990
            [1 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China
            [2 ]School of Computer and Information Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, Fujian, China
            [3 ]Shenzhen Data Thinking Corporation, Shenzhen, China
            Author notes
            *Corresponding authors: E-mail: ericheshi@ 123456163.com (SH); wanhood@ 123456163.com , Tel: +86-13538047813 (WY); 1135529689@ 123456qq.com , Tel: +86-13602601597 (DG)

            #Minjing He and Shuqiong Zhang have contributed equally to this work.

            Copyright © 2023 The Authors.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            : 07 February 2023
            : 09 February 2023
            : 09 February 2023
            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 7, References: 7, Pages: 13
            Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program of China
            Award ID: 2022YFC2302700
            Funded by: Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: 2021A1515220084
            Funded by: Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: 2020B1111160001
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: ZDSYS20210623092001003
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: GJHZ20200731095604013
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: JSGG20220301090003004
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: GJHZ20210705142007022
            Dayong Gu and Qun Su conceived and designed the project. The data were collected by Taihan Li and Qi Xiang. The manuscript was written by Minjing He and Shuqiong Zhang. Shiping He and Yufan Wu revised the manuscript. Dayong Gu supervised the study. This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2022YFC2302700), Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation (Nos. 2021A1515220084 and 2020B1111160001) and Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation (ZDSYS20210623092001003, GJHZ20200731095604013, JSGG20220301090003004 and GJHZ20210705142007022).
            Short Communication

            Parasitology,Animal science & Zoology,Molecular biology,Public health,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
            infectious diseases,influenza,surveillance,COVID-19,outbreak


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