Developing pupils' knowledge and understanding of world poverty and how to reduce it requires building teachers' capacity. With this objective in mind, the UK Global Learning Programme (GLP 2013–18) sought to determine the extent to which a social justice mentality was evident among pupils in Northern Ireland schools in tandem with, or instead of, the prevailing charity mentality. Using a qualitative approach, the research examined their conceptions of, and attitudes towards, social justice and equity, and how they had helped make the world fairer. They understood the causes of inequality and saw the contrast between great wealth and absolute poverty. Their growing motivation to help related mainly to charitable actions, but there was evidence of critical thinking about longer-term implications and a social justice stance.