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            Arab Studies Quarterly
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            1 July 2008
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            Social & Behavioral Sciences


            1. <http://experts.about.com/e/d/da/darfur.htm>.

            2. Ibid.

            3. Kamal Mohammed Obeid, Darfur: The Absent Truth, (Sudanese Media Centre, Khartoum, 2005), p. 111.

            4. "Crisis of Darfur", Al Hayat, (London Daily Newspaper) 9.5.2004.

            5. <http://www.freearabvoice.org/articles/Darfur The New American French Protectorate.htm> 12.12.2006.

            6. Alex de Waal, op. cit.

            7. Ibid.

            8. Kamal Obeid, op. cit.

            9. K.M. Barbour, Republic of the Sudan (University of London Press, 1961) p. 149-158.

            10. <http://www.freearabvoice.org/articles/Darfur The New American French Protechorate.htm> 12.12.2006.

            11. International Herald Tribune, Africa and Middle East, op. cit.

            12. Kamal Obeid, op. cit., p. 119.

            13. <http://experts.about.com/e/d/da/darfur.htm>.

            14. "The Darfur Crisis" The online Newshour, <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/africa/darfur/ rebel-groups.html> 23.4.2007.

            15. Basic Search, Sudan: General Conflict Information, Uppsala University, <http://www.pcr.uu.se/database/conflict summary.php./bcld=233>, 23.4.2007.

            16. Fatma Al Amin Ali, "The Role of Traditional Mechanism and Official Efforts in reconciling Tribal Conflicts in Darfur," Peace File (2), (Africa and the Middle East Studies Centre, Khartoum, Noember—December 2003), p. 27.

            17. Muna Taha Ayoub, "Political Motivation for Conflict in Darfur", Peace File, (Africa and the Middle East Studies Centre, Khartoum, November— December 2003), p. 11.

            18. Muna Taha Ayoub, op. cit.

            19. Darfur, Nyala, Southern Darfur State, Sudan, 17-22 December 1997.

            20. Ibrahim Al-Amin, op. cit.

            21. The Black Book, Justice and Truth Movement (Khartoum, 1999), p. 20.

            22. Ibid.

            23. Ibid.

            24. <http://www.freearabvoice.org / articles / Darfur The American French Protectorate.htm>, 12/12/2006.

            25. Ibrahim Ali Ibrahim, Centre-Periphery Conflict Over Power in Sudan," <http://www.sudani.net/modules.php?name=news & file=article>.

            26. Al Sharag Al Awsat (London based Arabic Daily Newspaper), 14.8.2004.

            27. Dia Eldin Bilal, "Who are the leaders of the rebellion movement in Darfur?" Sudan Nile Electronic Magazine, 9.5.2004. feedback@sudanile.com.

            28. Abdel Wahab Al Afendi, "Darfur: The End of Politics in Sudan", Al Quds Al-Arabi (London Daily Newspaper), 11.3.2003.

            29. Dia Eldin Bilal, op. cit.

            30. Ibid. 3.6.2003.

            31. "Sudanese Democratic Federal Alliance", The political Manifesto issued January 1994.

            32. A statement issued by Ahmed Ibrahim Direig, London, 8.12.2003.

            33. Al Hayat, 27.10.2004.

            34. Al Qabas, 4.8.2004.

            35. Al-Itihad (United Arab Emirates Daily Newspaper) 10.8.2004.

            36. <BBC Arabic.Com>, 29.5.2006.

            37. "Sudanese army denies responsibility for attacks in Darfur, balme militias and bandits" News Article by AP, 26 November 2006. <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/13655.html>. 27.11.2006.

            38. "Policy of Ethnic Cleansing followed by Sudanese Government and the Arab militias in Western Darfur", <http://www.hrw.org/ arabic/reports/2004/Sudan-dar 8 htm>, 3.4.2006.

            39. <http://www.hrw.org/arabic/reports/2004/sudan-dar8htm>, 3.4.2006.

            40. "Darfur and the Peace building", United Nations Mission in Sudan, <http://www.unmis.org/english/darfur.htm>, 12.3.2007.

            41. Mamdouh Anes Fathi, "U.S. Strategy in the Coming Century," Al- Seyasa Al Dawlia (International Politics) Cairo, 1998, p. 190.

            42. Ibid.

            43. <http://www.ahram.org.eg/acpss/ahram/2001/1/1/R2RB24.htm>.

            44. Al Haya (London-based Arabic Daily Newspaper) 23.10.2003.

            45. David Hoile, Farce Majeure, The Clinton Administration's Sudan Policy (London: European Sudanese Public Affairs Council, 2000), p. 6

            46. Hassan Adam "The US role in the Sudanese Peace Process" A paper presented to a symposium organized by the African and Middle East Study Centre, Khartoum, 11.9.2004, p. 72.

            47. "Sudanese-American Relations between intimidation and normalization," <http://www.smcsudan.net/files/3.html>.

            48. (i) Al-Ahram (Egyptian Daily Newspaper) 29.11.2004. (ii) Norm Dixon, "Oil Profits Behind West Tear for Darfur", Counter punch, 19.8.2004. <http://www.counterpunch.org/brauchlill 1192004.html>.

            49. <http://arabic.cnn.com/2006/darfur/12/25/darfur.file/index.html>.

            50. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/arabic/news/newsid 4400000/ 4400675.stm>. 29.5.2006.

            51. "'Khartoum rejects ICC jurisdiction over Darfur Crimes", News Article by AFP, 27.2.2007. <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14192.html>

            52. Sudan announces it will suspend cooperation with the International Criminal Court', News Article by AP, 19.3.2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14293.html>.

            53. 'How the UN Can stop Genocide in Darfur', Africa Action's Newsroom, 17.1.2006, <http://www.africaaction.org/newsroom/index.php?op= read&documentid=1603&type>.

            54. Ibid.

            55. Africa Action's Newsroom, op. cit.

            56. Middle East Online, http://www.middle_east_online.com/ sudan/?id=44438 >, 12.3.2007.

            57. "NATO-Led UN Darfur Intervention would Become Another Iraq", Press Release/Commentary by ESPAC, 18.3.2006,mhttp://www.sudan.net/ news/press/posted/332.html>.

            58. (i) "The US vision of a new Sudan: The Black African Zone", Alam Al-Huda A Osman, ,<elnadief@hotmail.com>. (ii) "Sudan: Confrontation or subjugation," Abdel Rahim Abdel Khalieg, , <Aawad3a@vahoo.com>.

            59. "US President Bush Approves Plan to Pressure Sudan", News Article by WP, 7.2.2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14098.html>. 7.2.2007.

            60. Ibid.

            61. "Sudan says tough new US measures will backfire", News Article by Reuters, 29.3.2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14352.html>, 1.4.2007.

            62. Ibid.

            63. "Sudan minister blasts Blair over Darfur Comments", News Article by AFP posted on 17 March 2007, <http://www.sudan.net/ news/posted/14283.html>. 17.3.2007.

            64. Mohammed Al Amin Abas, "Genesis & Development of the Darfur Crisis", Al-Mustagbal Al-Arabi (Arabic Future), Vol. 27, No. 312, (Feb 2005), p. 70-87.

            65. "France threatens Sudan with sanctions", News Article by AFP posted on March 20, 2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14300.html>, 21.3.2007.

            66. Country Report, Sudan, The Economist Intelligence Unit (London), September 2006.

            67. "China Seduces Africa while West Watches" News Article by Reuters posted on 6 November 2006, <http://www.sudan.net/ news/posted/13519.html>, 27.11.2006.

            68. International Crisis Group, op. cit., p. 8.

            69. "Darfur exposes Chinese hypocrisy" The Washington Post, 6.9.2006.

            70. "US envoy to Sudan critical of China", News Article by Reuters posted on February 9, 2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14115.html>, 12.2.2007.

            71. "China defends Darfur stance after French politician calls for 2008 Olympic boycott", News Article by AP posted on March 23, 2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14307.html>, 24.3.2007.

            72. Ibid.

            73. "China calls for more flexibility from Sudan on Darfur issue", News Article by Xinhua posted on 3 April 2007, <http://www.sudan.net/ news/posted/14377.html>, 9.4.2007.

            74. (i) "African Union under test in Darfur Crisis", English People's Daily Online, 28 December 2004, <http://english.people.com.cn/ 2004/2/28/eng20041228 168960.htm1>, 26.3.2007. (ii) "Darfur: African Union Must Deploy Faster", Human Right Watch, <http://hrw.org/english/docs/ 2005/05/08/darfur10589.htm>, 26.3.2007.

            75. "Sudan rejects larger African Union Role in Darfur", the Associated Press, 24.8.2004.

            76. Kristina Nwazota, op. cit.

            77. Kristina Nwazota, op. cit.

            78. "US Chad move toward closer military ties," News Article by AP posted on 15 February 2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/14145.html>, 19.2.2007.

            79. "Sudan, Chad, CAR agree not to support rebels", News Article by AFP posted on 15 February 2007, <http://www.sudan.net/news/posted/ 14141.html>, 19.2.2007.

            80. "On the failure of Darfur peace talks in Abuja", Eric Reeves, op. cit.

            81. Sudan: Saving the Darfur Peace Agreement", Refugees International, 21.8.2006, http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/ detail/9385, 28.4.2007.

            82. "Darfur Peace Deal", About World News, http://worldnews.about.com/od/sudan/a/dargur_peace.htm>, 12.12.2006.

            83. "On the failure of Darfur peace talks in Abuja', Eric Reeves, op. cit.

            84. The Fragile Darfur Peace Agreement", International Crisis Group, Update Briefing, African Briefing No. 39, Nairobi, Brussels, 20 June 2006.

            85. Eric Reeves, op. cit.

            86. Africa, Sudan, General Conflict Information, University of Uppsala, op. cit. p. 3.


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