440
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares

      If you have found this article useful and you think it is important that researchers across the world have access, please consider donating, to ensure that this valuable collection remains Open Access.

      Arab Studies Quarterly is published by Pluto Journals, an Open Access publisher. This means that everyone has free and unlimited access to the full-text of all articles from our international collection of social science journalsFurthermore Pluto Journals authors don’t pay article processing charges (APCs).

      scite_
       
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      FRAMING THE "THREAT TO ISLAM": AL-WALA’ WA AL-BARA’ IN SALAFI DISCOURSE

      research-article
      Arab Studies Quarterly
      Pluto Journals
      Bookmark

            Content

            Author and article information

            Journal
            arabstudquar
            10.2307/j50005550
            Arab Studies Quarterly
            Pluto Journals
            02713519
            1 October 2008
            : 30
            : 4
            : 1-22
            Article
            10.2307/41858559
            800abc38-d3ff-4914-8e99-b739db2a272d

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            History

            Social & Behavioral Sciences

            ENDNOTES

            1. The Economist.com (http://www.economist.com/agenda/displaystory.cfm?story_id=El_VQRJTNP), 8 February 2006; The Economist, 11 February 2006, 25.

            2. The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, "Views of a Changing World — How Global Publics View War in Iraq, Democracy, Islam and Governance, Globalization," Pew Global Attitudes Project, http://pewglobal.org/reports/pdf/185.pdf, June 2003, 46.

            3. Richard Wilke and Nilanthi Samaranayake, "Where Terrorism Finds Support in the Muslim World," Pew Global Attitudes Project, http://pewresearch.org/pubs/26/where-terrorism-finds-support-in-the-muslim- world, 23 May 2006. Mohammed M. Hafez, Suicide Bombers in Iraq — The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom (Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 2007), 166-167.

            4. The Economist, 28 August 2004, 25; Ibid., 4 September 2004, 27.

            5. Anne W. Esacove, "Dialogic Framing: The Framing/Counterframing of 'Partial-Birth' Abortion," Sociological Inquiry 74, no. 1 (2004): 70-101; Dawn McCaffrey and Jennifer Keys, "Competitive Framing Processes in the Abortion Debate: Polarization-vilification, Frame Saving, and Frame Debunking," Sociological Quarterly 41, no. 1 (2000): 41-61; Deana A. Rohlinger, "Framing the Abortion Debate: Organizational Resources, Media strategies, and Movement-Countermovement Dynamics," Sociological Quarterly 43, no. 4 (2002): 479-507.

            6. Erving Goflman, Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience (New York etc.: Harper & Row, 1974), 21.

            7. David A. Snow et al., "Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation," American Sociological Review 51 (1986): 464-481; David A. Snow and Robert A. Benford, "Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization," in International Social Movement Research Vol. 1, ed. Bert Klandermans, Hanspeter Kriesi and Sidney Tarrow (Greenwich, Conn, and London: JAI Press, 1988), 187-217; Robert D. Benford and David A. Snow, "Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview," Annual Review of Sociology 26 (2000): 611-639.

            8. Sarah Babb, "'A True American System of Finance': Frame Resonance in the U.S. Labor Movement, 1866 to 1886," American Sociological Review 61 (1996): 1033-1052; Bert Klandermans et al., "Injustice and Adversarial Frames in a Supranational Political Context: Farmers' Protest in the Netherlands and Spain," in Social Movements in a Globalizing World, ed. Donatella della Porta, Hanspeter Kriesi and Dieter Rucht (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 1999), 134-147.

            9. Alena Heitlinger, "Framing Feminism in Post- Communist Czech Republic," Communist and Post-Communist Studies 29, no. 1 (1996): 77-93; Aaronette M. White, "Talking Feminist, Talking Black — Micromobilization Processes in a Collective Protest against Rape," Gender & Society 13, no. 1 (1999): 77-100.

            10. Gerald M. Piatt and Michael R. Fraser, "Race and Gender Discourse Strategies: Creating Solidarity and Framing the Civil Rights Movement," Social Problems 45, no. 2 (1998): 160-179; Steve Valocchi, "The Emergence of the Integrationist Ideology in the Civil Rights Movement," Social Problems 43, no. 1 (1996): 116-130.

            11. Robert D. Benford, "Frame Disputes within the Nuclear Disarmament Movement," Social Forces 71, no. 3 (1993): 677-701; Roberta L. Coles, "Peaceniks and Warmongers' Framing Fracas on the Home Front: Dominant and Opposition Discourse Interaction during the Persian Gulf Crisis," Sociological Quarterly 39, no. 3 (1998): 369-391.

            12. Teun A. van Dijk, Ideology — A Multidisciplinary Approach (London etc.: Sage Publications, 1998); John Gerring, "Ideology: A Definitional Analysis," Political Research Quarterly 50 (1997): 957-994.

            13. Glenn E. Robinson, "Hamas as Social Movement," in Islamic Activism — A Social Movement Theory Approach, ed. Quintan Wiktorowicz (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2004), 129.

            14. Pamela E. Oliver and Hank Johnston, "What a Good Idea! Ideologies and Frames in Social Movement Research," Mobilization 4 (2000): 37-54. David A. Snow and Robert D. Benford, "Clarifying the Relationship between Framing and Ideology in the Study of Social Movements: A Comment on Oliver and Johnston," Mobilization 4 (2000): 55-60; Hank Johnston and Pamela E. Oliver, "Reply to Snow and Benford," Mobilization 4 (2000): 61-63.

            15. Quintan Wiktorowicz and Suha Taji Farouki, "Islamic NGOs and Muslim Politics: A Case from Jordan," Third World Quarterly 21, no. 4 (2000): 685-686, 693, 695. "Poll of the Islamic World: Perceptions of Western Culture," Gallup, http://www.gallup.com/poll/5458/Poll-Islamic- World-Perceptions-Western-Culture.aspx, 12 March 2002.

            16. Mohammed M. Hafez, Why Muslims Rebel — Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World (Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner, 2003), 164-169.

            17. Robinson, 130-132.

            18. Mohammed M. Hafez, "Martyrdom Mythology in Iraq: How Jihadists Frame Suicide Terrorism in Videos and Biographies," Terrorism and Political Violence 19 (2007): 99-101.

            19. Al-Quds al-'Arabi, 23 February 1998, 3. Martijn de Koning, "'You Follow the Path of the Shaitan; We Try to Follow the Righteous Path' — Negotiating Evil in the Identity Construction of Young Moroccan-Dutch Muslims," in Coping with Evil in Religion and Culture — Case Studies, eds. L. Minnema & N. van Doorn-Harder (Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2008), 137- 149.

            20. Brynjar Lia, "Al-Qaeda's Appeal: Understanding its Unique Selling Points," Perspectives on Terrorism 2 (2008): 3-4.

            21. Sayyid Qutb, Milestones (New Delhi: Islamic Book Service, 2001).

            22. 'Abdullah 'Azzam, Al-Difa' 'an Aradi l-Muslimin Ahamm Furud al-A 'yan, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d., chapter "Al-Difa' 'an Aradi l-Muslimin Ahamm Furud al-A'yan," 1.

            23. Ibid., chapter "Adillat al-Nafir al-'Ilm wa-Mubarraratihi," 2.

            24. François Burgat and Muhammad Sbitli, "Les Salafis au Yémen... la Modernisation malgré tout," Chronique Yéménites 10 (2002): 123-152 ; Roel Meijer, ed., Global Salafism: Islam 's New Religious Movement (London: Hurst & Co., forthcoming in 2008); Quintan Wiktorowicz, The Management of Islamic Activism — Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and State Power in Jordan (New York: State University of New York Press, 2001), 111-120. Quintan Wiktorowicz, "Anatomy of the Salafi Movement," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 29 (2006): 207-239.

            25. Etan Kohlberg, "Bara'a in Shi'i Doctrine," Jerusalem Studies of Arabic and Islam 7 (1986): 139-175.

            26. Uri Rubin, "Bara'a: A Study of Some Quranic Passages," Jerusalem Studies of Arabic and Islam 5 (1984): 13-32.

            27. Joas Wagemakers, "The Transformation of a Radical Concept: Al- Wala' wa-l-Bara' in the Ideology of Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi," in Global, ed. Meijer.

            28. David A. Snow and Robert D. Benford, "Master Frames and Cycles of Protest," in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992), 138-141.

            29. Madawi al-Rasheed, Contesting the Saudi State — Islamic Voices from a New Generation (Cambridge etc.: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 36-37; Guido Steinberg, "The Wahhabi Ulama and the Saudi State: 1745 to the Present," in Saudi Arabia in the Balance — Political Economy, Society, Foreign Affairs, eds. Paul Aarts & GerdNonneman (London: Hurst & Co., 2005), 16-20.

            30. 'Abd al-Malik al-Qasim, Al-Wala' wa-l-Bara', http://www.saaid.net, n.d., 2; Salih b. Fawzan al-Fawzan, Al-Wala' wa-l-Bara http://www.saaid.net, n.d., 7; 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Baz, Hukm Musharaka al-Nasara fi A 'yadihim, http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d.; Hamid b. 'Abdallah al-'Ali, Hukm al-Ihtifal bi-'Id Milad al-Walad, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d., 1-2.

            31. Humud b. 'Uqala' al-Shu'aybi, Hukm al-Musharaka fi Ihtifalat al- Nasara, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d., 1-2.

            32. Humud al-Tuwayjin, Tuhfat al-Ikhwan bi-ma Ja'a fi l-Muwalat, http://www.tawhed.ws, 1963, chapter 4, 3.

            33. 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Baz, Musafahat al-Nasrani aw al-Yahudi hal Tabtalu l-Wudu', n.d.; La Yajuzu Bad' al-Kuffar bi-l-Salam, n.d.; Wajib al- Muslim Tujah al-Kafir, n.d., 1. http://www.binbaz.org.sa.

            34. Ibid., Tabadul al-Ziyarat bayna l-Muslimat wa-ghayr Muslimat, n.d.; Hukm Akl al-Muslim ma'a l-Kafir, n.d.; Al-Kafir laysa Akhan li-l-Muslim, n.d., 1. http://www.binbaz.org.sa.

            35. Al-Qasim, 2; Al-Fawzan, 4-5.

            36. Al-Qasim, 2; Al-Fawzan, 4, 8; Ibn Baz, Hukm al-Salam bi-l-Ishara bi-l-Yad, http://www.binbaz.org.sa., n.d.

            37. 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Baz, Ta'qib 'ala Maqalat al-Shaykh Jad al-Haqq Shaykh al-Azhar bi-'Unwan: 'Alaqat al-Islam bi-l-Adyan al-Ukhra, n.d.; La Ikhwa bayna l-Muslimin wa-l-Kafirin wa-la Din Haqq ghayr Din al-Islam, n.d., http://www.binbaz.org.sa.

            38. Muhammad Mustafa al-Muqri', La Taf'alu!!, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d., 1.

            39. Humud b. 'Uqala' al-Shu'aybi, Hukm al-Musharaka, 1; Li- madha la Yajuzu li-l-Muslim an Yahtafilu bi-l-Milad?, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d., 1.

            40. Al-Qasim, 1.

            41. Hamid b. 'Abdallah al-'Ali, Hal Yajuzu l-Ihtifal bi-'IdRa's al-Sana al-Nasraniyya?!, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d., 1; Humud b. 'Uqala' al-Shu'aybi, Hukm al-Musharaka, 2; ibid., Hukm Tahni'at al-Kuffar bi-A'yadihim, http://www.tawhed.ws, April 6, 2000, 1; Humud al-Tuwayjiri, chapter 10, 1.

            42. Al-Fawzan, 9-12; 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Baz, Wujub Ta'awun al-Muslim ma'a Ikhwanihi al-Muslimin 'ala l-Birr wa-l-Taqwa, http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d., 1; ibid., Wujub al-Tadamun wa-l-Takatuf didd A'da' al-Muslimin, http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d; Abu 'Abdallah 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Abd al- Khaliq, Al-Wala' wa-l-Bara', http://www.salafi.net, 1986, 2-9.

            43. Al-Fawzan, 2.

            44. Humud b. 'Uqala' al-Shu'aybi, Hukm Tahni'at, 1; 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Baz, Mas' ala fi l- Bara'a min al-Mushrikin wa-I'tiqad Kufrihim, http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d., 1.

            45. Joas Wagemakers, "Defining the Enemy: Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi's Radical Reading of Surat al-Mumtahana," Die Welt des Islams (forthcoming).

            46. 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Salih al-Jarbu', Al-I'lam bi-Wujub al-Hijra min Dar al-Kufr ila Dar al-Islam, http://www.tawhed.ws, 2001, "Muqaddima" 2.

            47. Al-Fawzan, 4; 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Baz, Hukm Iqamat al- Muslim fi Bilad al-Kufr, http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d.; ibid., Hukm Iqamat al- Afghan al-Muslimin bayna l-Shuyu'in, http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d.

            48. 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Baz, Ma 'na l-Wala' wa-l-Bara http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d.

            49. Juhayman b. Sayf al-'Utaybi, Awthaq 'Ara l-Iman: Al-Hubb fi llah wa-l-Bughd fi llah; Raf al-Iltibas 'an Milla min Ja'lihi llah Imaman li-l-Nas; Risalat al-Imara wa-l-Bay'a wa-l-Ta'a wa-Hukm Talbis al- Hukkam 'ala Talabat al-'Ilm wa-l-'Amma, all available on http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d. Grand Mosque in Mecca in 1979, Thomas Hegghammer and Stéphane Lacroix, "Rejectionist Islamism in Saudi Arabia: The Story of Juhayman al-'Utaybi Revisited," International Journal of Middle East Studies 39 (2007): 103-122; Joseph A. Kechichian, "Islamic Revival and Change in Saudi Arabia: Juhayman al-'Utaybi's 'Letters' to the Saudi People," The Muslim World 80 (1990): 1-16; Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower - Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 (New York: Knopf, 2006), 88-94.

            50. Abu Mus'ab al-Suri, Da 'wat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya al-'Alamiyya (n.p., 2004), 158.

            51. Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Al-Kawashif al-Jaliyya fi Kufr al- Dawla al-Sa'udiyya, http://www.tawhed.ws, [1989] 2000/2001, 140-141. Joas Wagemakers, "A Purist Jihadi-Salafi — The Ideology of Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi," British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (forthcoming).

            52. Al-Maqdisi, Al-Kawashif 13.

            53. Humud b. 'Uqala' al-Shu'aybi, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtar fi Hukm al- Isti 'ana bi-l-Kuffar, http://www.saaid.net, 1999, 13.

            54. Ibid., 39.

            55. Ibid., 59-64.

            56. Ayman al-Zawahiri, AI-Wala' wa-l-Bara': 'Aqida Manqula wa- Waqi' Mafqud, http://www.tawhed.ws, 2000.

            57. Al-Suri, 154-189, 969-973, 989-993. Brynjar Lia, Architect of Global Jihad - The Life of Al-Qaida Strategist Abu Mus'ab al-Suri (London: Hurst & Co., 2007).

            58. Nasir b. Hamd al-Fahd, Al-Tibyan fi Kufr Man A'ana al-Amrikan — Vol. I, http://www.tawhed.ws, 2001, 42-45; 'Ali b. Khudayr al-Khudayr, Al- Hadd al-Fasil bayna Muwala wa-Tawalli al-Kuffar, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d. Al-Rasheed, 139-148, 168-171.

            59. Saalih Aal ash-Shaykh, Concerning Tawallee and Muwaalaat, http://www.salafipubhcations.com, n.d.; A Study Concerning the Difference Between Tawallee to the Kuffar and Muwaalaat of Them, http://www.salafipublications.com, n.d.; Abdul-Muhsin al-Ubaykaan, Muwaalaat and Mudhaaharah (Loyalty and Support) to the Mushrikeen, http://www.salafipublications.com, n.d.; Al-Maqdisi, Al-Risala al-Thalathiniyya fi l-Tahdhir min al-Ghuluw fi l-Takfir, http://www.tawhed.ws, 1998/1999, nos. 16-18.

            60. Al-Fahd, 42-45; Al-Khudayr. See also Yusuf al-'Uyayri, Haqiqat al-Harb al-Salibiyya al-Jadida, http://www.tawhed.ws, 2001, 67-73. Roel Meijer, "Yusuf al-'Uyairi and the Making of a Revolutionary Salafi Praxis," Die Welt des Islams 47 (2007): 422-459.

            61. Abu 'Umar al-Sayf, Huhn Muzaharat al-Amrikan 'ala l-Muslimin - Al-'Iraq wa-Ghazw al-Salib: Durus wa-Ta'ammulat, http://www.tawhed.ws, n.d., 1.

            62. Al-Maqdisi, Millat Ibrahim wa-Da'wat al-Anbiya' wa-l-Mursalin, http://www.tawhed.ws, 1984, chapter 3, 4. ibid., Al-Kawashif 114, 143.

            63. Al-Maqdisi, Kashf al-Niqab 'an Shari'at al-Ghab, http://www.tawhed.ws, 1988, chapter "(7) Min Ashna' Tawaghit al-'Asr," 2.

            64. "Ideology," 205-211,

            65. Snow et al., 472-473.

            66. Michael J. McCallion and David R. Maines, "The Liturgical Social Movement in the Vatican II Catholic Church," in Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, Vol. 21, ed. Michael Dobkowski and Isidor Walliman (Stamford, Conn.: JAI Press Inc., 1999), 125-149.

            67. Daniel B. Cornfield and Bill Fletcher, "Institutional Constraints on Social Movement 'Frame Extension': Shifts in the legislative Agenda of the American Federation of Labor, 1881-1955," Social Forces 76 (1998): 1305- 1321.

            68. Nicole Youngman, "When Frame Extension Fails - Operation Rescues and the 'Triple Gates of Hell' in Orlando," Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 32 (2003): 521-554.

            69. Al-Muqri', 2.

            70. 'Abd al-' Aziz b. Baz, Wujub 'Adawat al-Yahud wa-l-Mushrikin wa- ghayrihim min al-Kuffar, http://www.binbaz.org.sa, n.d., 2.

            71. Ibid., 1.

            72. Al-Jarbu', 2.

            73. Al-Maqdisi, Al-Kawashif, 87-92.

            74. Ibid., 92-104.

            75. Ibid., 104.

            76. Al-Suri, part 1, chapters 1 and 2. al-wala' wa-l- bara' see 154-196.

            77. Al-'Uyayri, 19-101.

            78. Ibid., 20.

            79. Al-Zawahiri, AI-Wala', "Al-Muqaddima," 1.

            80. Ibid., chapter 1, parts 1-6.

            81. Ibid., chapter 1, part 6, 2.

            82. Ibid., chapter 1, parts 7-10.

            83. Al-Sayf, 4.

            84. Ibid., 6.

            85. Ibid., 3-4.

            86. Al-Fahd, 26-30.

            Comments

            Comment on this article