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      THE DYNAMICS OF THE AMAL MOVEMENT IN LEBANON 1975-90

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      Arab Studies Quarterly
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            Journal
            arabstudquar
            10.2307/j50005550
            Arab Studies Quarterly
            Pluto Journals
            02713519
            1 January 2012
            : 34
            : 1
            : 4-26
            Article
            10.2307/41858677
            cbff7220-27b0-477e-aca6-468957674c40
            © THE CENTER FOR ISLAMIC AND MIDDLE EASTERN STUDIES 2012

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.


            Social & Behavioral Sciences

            Notes

            1. Augustus Richard Norton, Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1988), p. 15.

            2. B. J. Odeh, Lebanon: Dynamics of Conflict (London: Zed Books, 1985), p. 89. ibid., pp. 88-91.

            3. Ali Fayyad, Interview conducted by the author in Arabic. Beirut, July 14, 2005.

            4. Ahmed Beydoun, Interview conducted by the author in Arabic. Beirut, January 9, 2007.

            5. Kazem al-Khalil returned to Tyre soon in July 1982; Odeh, Lebanon, pp. 108-111. Norton, Amal and the Shi'a, p. 110.

            6. Saqir Youssef Saqir, Al' Al-Sadr wa Usulahom wa A'lamahom, pp. 10-12. The Vanished Imam Musa al-Sadr Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (Beirut, Lebanon: Edito Creps International, 2007).

            7. H. E. Chehabi and Majid Tafreshi, Musa Sadr and Iran, p. 143. H. E. Chehabi, ed., Distance Relations: Lebanon and Iran in the Last 500 Years (New York and London: Centre for Lebanese Studies in association with I. B. Tauris Publishers, 2006).

            8. Ibid., pp. 143-144.

            9. Ibid., p. 144.

            10. Ibid., p. 151.

            11. Vali Nasr, The Shi'a Revival: How Conflicts within Islam will Shape the Future (New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 2006), pp. 110-111.

            12. "Al-Sadr Yad'o Ila Insh'a Mouqawama Lubnaniya: Takhazoul al-Sulta fi al-Dif'a La Youlghi Wajib al-Sha'ib," al-Nahar newspaper, January 21, 1975.

            13. "Infijar Lojhom fi Markaz Lil Tadreib Kourba Baalback: 40 Qatilan wa Nahwa 100 Jareih," al-Nahar newspaper, July 6, 1975. Kamal S. Salibi, Crossroads to Civil War: Lebanon 1958-1976 (Delmar, New York: Caravan Books, 1976), p. 119.

            14. "Wiladat Harakat Amai Rasmiyan, Da'wa Ila Ja'il al-Milishiyat Jayshan Radifan (Musa al-Sadr Officially Declares the Emergence of Amai Movement: A Call to Make the Militias the Alternative Army)," al-Nahar newspaper, July 7, 1975.

            15. Ibid.

            16. Salibi, Crossroads to Civil War, p. 119.

            17. Naomi Joy Weinberger, Syrian Intervention in Lebanon: The 1975-1976 Civil War (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 157.

            18. As'ad Abu-Khalil, "Druze, Sunni and Shiite Political Leadership in Present-Day Lebanon," Arab Studies Quarterly 7:4 (Fall 1985), 46.

            19. Rodger Shanahan, The Shi'a of Lebanon: Clans, Parties and Clerics (London and New York: Tauris Academic Studies, an imprint of I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2005), p. 107.

            20. Rosemary Sayigh, Too Many Enemies: The Palestinian Experience in Lebanon (London: Zed Books, 1994), p. 171.

            21. Ferdinand Smit, The Battle for South Lebanon: The Radicalisation of Lebanon's Shi'ites 1982-1985 (Amsterdam: Bulaaq, 2000), p. 81.

            22. James A. Reilly, "Israel in Lebanon, 1975-1982," MERIP Reports. No. 108/109, The Lebanon War September-October 1982, pp. 14-20.

            23. Jamal Sankari, Fadlallah: The Making of a Radical Shi'ite Leader (London: Saqi Publications, 2005), p. 168.

            24. Soubhi Munzir Yaghi, "Sab'a wa Ishruna Aman Ala Taghyeib ai-Imam Musa al-Sadr, Mouasis al-Majlis al-Islami al-Shi'i al-A'la wa Harakat Amal," al-Nahar newspaper, August 31, 2005.

            25. Norton, Amal and the Shi'a, p. 54.

            26. Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh, In the Path of Hizbullah (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2004), p. 22.

            27. Ali Faisal, Interview conducted by the author in Arabic, Mar Elias refugee camp. Beirut, April 4, 2006.

            28. Salah Salah, Interview conducted by the author in Arabic. Beirut, September 2, 2005.

            29. Timor Goksil, Interview conducted by the author in English at AUB. Beirut, January 4, 2007.

            30. Tawfiq Al-Madini, Amai wa Hizballah: Fi Halabat al-Mojabahat al-Mahaliyya wa al-Iqlimiyya (Al-Ahali, First edition, 1999, pp. 70-71). Al-Harakat-Al-Islamiyya fi Lubnan (Al-Shir'a, 1984, Interview with Aqif Haydar, pp. 85-86).

            31. Sankari, Fadlallah, p. 173.

            32. Smit, The Battle for South Lebanon, p. 118.

            33. Roschanack Shaery-Eisenlohr, Shi'ite Lebanon: Transnational Religion and the Making of National Identities (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), p. 92.

            34. Rex Brynen, Sanctuary and Survival: The PLO in Lebanon (Boulder and San Francisco: Westview Press, 1990), pp. 133-134.

            35. H. E. Chehabi, Iran and Lebanon in the Revolutionary Decade, p. 203. Citied in Chehabi, ed., Distance Relations.

            36. Ibid., p. 203.

            37. Rex Brynen, "PLO Policy in Lebanon: Legacies and Lessons," Journal for Palestine Studies 18:2 (Winter 1989), 48-70, at p. 57.

            38. Smit, The Battle for South Lebanon, p. 124.

            39. Helena Cobban, The Making of Modern Lebanon (Hutchinson and Co. Publisher Ltd, 1985), p. 176.

            40. Smit. The Battle for South Lebanon. p. 125.

            41. Abu-Khalil, "Druze, Sunni and Shiite Political Leadership in Present-Day Lebanon," 47.

            42. Timor Goksil, Interview conducted by the author in English at AUB. Beirut, January 4, 2007.

            43. Norton, Amai and the Shi'a, p. 68.

            44. Smit, The Battle for South Lebanon, p. 126.

            45. Abu-Khalil, "Druze, Sunni and Shiite Political Leadership in Present-Day Lebanon," 49.

            46. Dr. Khalifa, "Al-Shi'ite fi Lubnan: Thawrat al-Dimographya wa al-Hirman (2) Amal Towajih Marakat Tahdid Hawiyataha; al-Hawiya al-Wataniya aw al-Hawiya al-Radikaliya al-Islamiyya, Tatawor Adad al-Shi'a fi Lubnan bayna 1860-1984," al-Amal magazine, April 29, 1984. al-Safir newspaper, April 5, 1982.

            47. Shanahan, The Shi'a of Lebanon, p. 112.

            48. Dr. Khalifa, "Al-Shi'ite fi Lubnan."

            49. Nicholas Blanford, cited in Voice of Hezbollah: The Statements of Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, Edited by Nicholas Noe with an Introduction by Nicholas Blanford (pp. 1-13), Translated by Ellen Khouri (London and New York: Verso Press, 2007), p. 5.

            50. Sankari, Fadlallah, p. 197.

            51. Ibid., p. 165.

            52. Ibid., p. 194.

            53. Smit, The Battle for South Lebanon, p. 210. Mahmoud Soueid, Al-Janub al-Lubnani fi Muwajahat Isr ail: 50 Aman Min al-Sumud wa al-Muqawamah [South Lebanon Confronting Israel: 50 Years of Steadfastness and Resistance] (Beirut, Lebanon: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1998), p. 39.

            54. Clinton Bailey, Lebanon's Shi'is after the 1982 War, p. 226. Martin Kramer, ed., Shi'ism, Resistance, and Revolution (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1987).

            55. Tabitha Petran, The Struggle over Lebanon (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1987), p. 348.

            56. William R. Doerner, "Movements within Movements," published by Washington Times 125:26 (July 1, 1985).

            57. Petran, The Struggle over Lebanon, p. 349.

            58. Ibid., p. 349.

            59. Ghassan Charbel, Interview with Ahmed Jibril, leader of the PFLP-GC, al-Wasat magazine, issue 169, April 24, 1995.

            60. Joe Stork, "The War of the Camps, The War of the Hostages," MERIP Reports, No. 133. June 1985, pp. 3-7 + 22.

            61. al-Ahed newspaper, issue 2, 1984.

            62. Hizballah in Lebanon was not publicized until February 16, 1985. Hizballah on February 16, 1985 Norton, Amal and the Shi'a, p. 167.

            63. Ali Fayyad, Interview conducted by the author in Arabic. Beirut, July 14, 2005.

            64. Ibid.

            65. Muhammed Abed al-Hameid Beydoun, Interview conducted by the author in Arabic. Beirut, July 21,2005.

            66. Hassan Nasrallah has been the current Secretary General of Hizballah since 1992. Nicholas Blanford's introduction (pp. 1-13)

            67. Sayyid Hassan Nasrallah on Civil War and Resistance, interview conducted by the Emirate newspaper al-Khaleej, March 11, 1986. Noe, ed., Voice of Hezbollah, p. 30.

            68. As'ad Abu-Khalil, Shiite and Palestinians: Underlying Causes of the Amal-Palestinian Conflict, p. 12. Elaine C. Hagopian, ed., "Amal and the Palestinians: Understanding the Battle of the Camps," Association of Arab-American University Graduates, Inc., Arab World Issues. Occasional Papers: Number 9, 1985. al-Nahar newspaper, May 13, 1985.

            69. Sayigh, Too Many Enemies, p. 225.

            70. Ibid., p. 225.

            71. Brynen, Sanctuary and Survival, pp. 188-189.

            72. Yezid Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, paperback), p. 584.

            73. Stork, "The War of the Camps, The War of the Hostages."

            74. Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State, p. 584.

            75. "Al-Awdah al-Sohiya wa al-Ijtimaiyah fi Mukhayamat Lubnan al-Mohasara," Balsam magazine, Issue 134-141, March 1987, pp. 58-65.

            76. Ibid.

            77. Brynen, Sanctuary and Survival, p. 189.

            78. Ghassan Bayram, "Min Itifaq al-Kaheira Ela Itifaq Dimashq: Nehayat Houdna Am Bedayat Houdna," al-Mustaqbal, Issue 436, June 29, 1985, pp. 24-25.

            79. Ibid.

            80. Ibid.

            81. Brynen, Sanctuary and Survival, p. 190.

            82. Sayigh, Too Many Enemies, p. 268.

            83. Brynen, Sanctuary and Survival, p. 190.

            84. Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State, p. 593.

            85. Ibid., p. 593.

            86. Ibid., p. 594.

            87. Ibid., p. 595.

            88. Ibid., p. 596.

            89. Elizabeth Picard. "The Lebanese Shi'a and Political Violence." UNRISD. DP 42. Aoril 1993. p. 36

            90. Timor Goksil, Interview conducted by the author in English at AUB. Beirut, January 4, 2007.

            91. Graham E. Fuller and Rend Rahim Francké, The Arab Shi'a: The Forgotten Muslims (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999), p. 217.

            92. Ahmed Kamel, "Lubnan: al-Wifaq al-Americi al-Souri, Yofajir Harb 'Amai' wa 'Hizballah,'" al-Yaown al-Sab'ih, April 18, 1988, p. 20.

            93. Fuller and Francké, The Arab Shi'a, p. 217.

            94. Picard, The Lebanese Shi'a and Political Violence, p. 37.

            95. Ibid., p. 37.

            96. "Lubnan: Al-Harb Bayna 'Amal' wa 'Hizballah', Niyran al-Dahiy'ya Toshi'il Iqlim al-Toufah," al-Yaowm al-Sab'ih, January 16, 1989, p. 13.

            97. Ibid.

            98. Abbas al-Sabbagh, al-Nahar newspaper, August 25, 2005.

            99. Picard, The Lebanese Shi'a and Political Violence, p. 37.

            100. Yitzhak Nakash, Reaching for Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2006), p. 122.

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