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      A Review of Elemental Mass Origin and Fundamental Forces Unification for Nuclear and Aerospace Industries



            The current study explored the implementation of the Standard Model theoretically on the atomic elements of the periodic table. Theoretically, the pure elemental mass was probed first time from the perspectives of elemental mass origin and forces unification. In-depth elemental analyses will have vital applications in nuclear, aerospace, electronics, semiconductor, and defense industries. The literature deals with elemental materials mass origin. Elemental mass origin and fundamental forces unification are unresolved concepts of the twenty first century. In this study, the Standard Model was used to describe the mass origin and forces unification. The traditional and modern quantum literature review proved that elemental mass originates from higgs field and higgs bosons. Higgs bosons, leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons interact and mediate through higgs field, bosons, photons, and gluons to transfer and gain mass. Moreover, higgs bosons, photons, gauge bosons and gluons interact through gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces. In conclusion, at the minimum energy level, the forces unification (interactions) causes the atom formation (elemental mass origin). Shortly, forces unification and elemental mass origin demonstrate great potential in their applications in medical, semiconductor, defense, and nuclear industries.

            Main article text

            1 INTRODUCTION

            Materials mass with its related interactions is a complex and intricate concept of 21st century[1]. Previously, atomic structure of materials was delineated using distinct atomic models[2], which included Dalton model, Thomson model, Lewis model, Rutherford model, Bohr model, and electron cloud model[37]. The studies of these models have solitarily elucidated atomic structure and fundamental atomic particles[8]. The Standard Atomic Model has been refined in the last few decades[9,10], in which atomic structure and materials mass origin were both expounded[11]. The newly discovered fundamental particles interpreted the force-energy relationship and unification of fundamental forces[12,13].

            Herein, the Standard Atomic Model was applied to demonstrate materials (elements) mass origin. The elementary particles, such as quarks, leptons, gluons, photons, bosons and higgs bosons, and their fundamental interactions are manifested for elemental mass origin and forces unification.


            Matter subsist in four fundamental observable states which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma[14]. Atom is a basic miniature of matter, and, as a fundamental unit, expresses the distinctive physical and chemical properties of matter and chemical elements[15]. The size of atoms is mostly around 100 pico-meters. Conventionally, atom is comprised of a heavy nucleus and bounded electrons, and inside the nucleus exist protons and neutrons[16,17]. The atomic structure of atom can be described using Dalton model, Thomson model, Lewis model, Rutherford model, Bohr model, and electron cloud model. The conventional atomic structure and forces interactions are shown in Figure 1 [8,18].

            Figure 1.

            The standard atomic structure.

            In recent decades, physicists and material scientists have developed a Standard Model for materials mass origin description. During experimental research, they discovered more elementary particles[19].


            The Standard Model describes the modern atomic structure, unification of fundamental forces, and materials mass origin[20]. The Standard Model comprises copious elementary particles that are classified into fundamental fermions and bosons. The fundamental fermions exist in the form of rudimentary particles of quarks and leptons[21,22].

            3.1 Fermions Elementary Particles

            Fermions are extremely small and light fundamental particles. These subatomic group has odd (1/2, 3/2) half integral angular momentum. The fermions are made up of leptons (electrons, muons, etc.), baryons (protons, neutrons, etc.), and odd mass nuclei such as tritium and uranium-233. Moreover, there are antiparticles with opposite spins of fermions[23,24].

            The formation of leptons is a result of weak interactions[10,25]. There are six types of leptons, and they occur in pairs, called generations. Totally, there are three generations, known as electron and electron neutrino, muon and muon neutrino, and tau and tau neutrino, with more mass and less stability in higher generations. The results of fundamental interactions of leptons are shown in Figure 2 [2628].

            Figure 2.

            Types of leptons elementary particles.

            Quarks are also elementary particles with color charge, electric charge, mass, and spin[29]. Due to these properties, quarks can interact with the four fundamental forces. The strong and weak interactions exist between these fundamental particles. The different three generations of quarks are up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom[30,31]. The first generation particles are stable, while the unstable second (mesons) and third generations (baryons) decay with short half-lives. Naturally, two up and one down quark mediate through gluons for protons formations. The outcomes of Quarks mediations are shown in Figure 3 [32].

            Figure 3.

            Types of Quarks Elementary Particles.

            3.2 Bosons Elementary Particles

            Bosons are force carrier fundamental particles, including gluons, photons, bosons and higgs bosons[33]. The scalar (higgs bosons) and vectors bosons (gluons and photons) mediate with gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces of interactions. The mediation occurs at macroscopic (electromagnetism) and microscopic levels[3335].

            Gluons mediate with nuclear forces of attractions. The charge interactions of quarks and mediations through strong forces of interactions allow gluons to transform particles (quarks) from one state to another[36].

            The W- and Z vector bosons are massive particles that mediate with leptons and quarks. The light and massive bosons with spin +1 and -1, respectively, interacts with fermions to interchange particles and transmit mass[37,38].

            Photons are fundamental elementary particles belonging to the class of bosons with wave-particle duality. They always move at the speed of 299792458m/s in vacuum as they are massless quantum tiny particles, while tends to behave as particles, when encountering an obstacle. The photons are mediated through electromagnetic fundamental interactions with quarks, leptons, and other elementary particles[3941].


            Four fundamental forces interact with elemental mass[42]. The existing interactions are gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong. Mathematically, Gravitational force is described as



            where F g is gravitational force, m 1 and m 2 masses of interacting bodies, r is central distance between bodies and G is gravitational constant.

            According to the equation and gravitational law of interaction, gravity is an innate mutual interaction of mass and energy. The gravitational interaction explains all phenomena and effects associated with macroscopic objects[43].

            The electromagnetic interaction is a unified description of magnetism and electrostatic interaction. According to Standard Model theory, these forces unified above 100 GeV energy. Electromagnetism can be described in the form of electromagnetic force. The force formulation is given below



            where E is the electric field, v is the velocity of the particle, and B is the magnetic field.

            The electromagnetic force is accomplished with an electromagnetic field which is made up on electric and magnetic fields and causes light emission and propagation.

            According to conventional atomic structure, an atom is made up of a nucleus and revolving bounded electrons that are bounded through electrostatic force of attraction. Mathematically, the force is described as



            where F electrostatic is force, K is coulombic constant, q 1 and q 2 are charges, and r central distance between charges.

            Previous studies have stated that the electrostatic interactions (bonding) contribute fundamentally in explaining the basic states of elemental mass, through which atoms are held together. Formally, these interactions are metallic, covalent, ionic, hydrogen and van der Walls[4448].

            The weak interaction is a type of natural interaction that causes radioactive decay[49]. Weak forces also contribute to fission and fusion reactions[49,50], and interact with all elementary particles. The fermions (quarks and leptons) interact through bosons to mediate and swap relative flavors. In beta minus decay, for instance, after emission of electron and electron antineutrino, the neutron (down quark) transformed to proton (up quark)[51,52].

            The nucleus, traditionally, is made up of protons and neutrons. The protons and neutrons are bounded together through strong nuclear forces. Collectively, the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus are termed nucleons. The radius of nucleus is defined as



            where A is the number of nucleons[53,54].

            The Standard Model presents a quite different interpretation of nucleus formation. According to this theory, the protons and neutrons are composed of quarks elementary particles. The formation of quarks is a result of strong interactions. These generations of particles are known according to their six different flavors, namely, up, down, top, bottom, charm, and strange[55].


            The elemental mass origin and forces unification are reverse engineering methodology. The mass gaining and unification start with higgs fundamental scalar particles interactions (Figure 4 and Figure 5). Higgs boson particles interact at high energy excitations, where higgs fields were produced. Furthermore, higher energies and temperature arbitrary are kept constant for concept demonstration[5660].

            Figure 4.

            The quantum and particle theories and respective materials engineering concepts.

            Figure 5.

            Elemental mass formation and forces interaction unification.

            Spontaneous symmetry breaking and gravity free are two models for particle mediation[61], which explain the mediations and generations of elemental mass due to higgs field interactions. The higgs bosons particles are created because of SU (2) symmetry breaking[62]. At higher temperature, vacuum, and energy, higgs field (Quantum field) exist strongly in vacuum around higgs particles. The field pervades in space. At a high temperature, the field originates symmetry breaking in interaction. The SU (2) symmetry breaking activates higgs mechanism. The higgs mechanism allows higgs field to interact with other bosons particles[63], which generates mass for W+, W- and Z0 through electroweak symmetry breaking. According to the Standard Model, the bosons can also decay into quarks with different six flavours like up, down, top, bottom, charm, and strange. Moreover, quarks are building blocks of protons and neutrons. The higgs field interaction is proportional to mass. The higgs bosons also interacts with leptons. As the Standard Model predicts, bosons can also decay into electrons, muon, tau and other building block particles[61,64,65].

            Protons and neutrons form nucleons, which make up 99.99% of atomic mass, and the rest 0.1% is from the electrons. Studies have reported that nucleons interact through strong and weak forces of attractions[6668]. Similarly, electrons mediate and interact through electrostatic and electro-magnetic forces of interactions. All elementary particles (including higgs) also experience gravitational force, whose strength depends on the individual mass of the interacting object[69,70].

            At optimistic conditions, the leptons, quarks, and other elementary particles interact through strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces to form a stable atom. Such formation obeys quantum chromodynamics (QCD), electroweak (EW), quantum electrodynamics, and general relativity (GR) theories, for forces-mass interactions. The forces unification and atom formations are shown in Figure 4 [44,7176]. According to Figure 4, at a high temperature, vacuum, and energies, the higgs field provides initial environment to higgs bosons, quarks, and leptons to interact through photons, gluons and bosons. During interaction and mediation, the elementary particles exchange mass to transform from one elementary particle to another. Similarly, within the atom, strong and weak nuclear forces primarily contribute to protons, neutrons, and nucleons (proton + neutron) formations. The weak and strong forces also play a vital role in nucleus emergence. The Figure 5 and Table 1 also explain the mediation of scalar higgs bosons with gauge bosons such as W+, W- and Z0. The interaction and mediation through these gauge bosons form leptons with different masses[7783].

            Table 1.

            Comparison of Modern and Traditional Quantum Literature

            Serial No.Author and Publication YearParticleDiscoveryMain Applications
            1Okada Y. [2007] [77] Higgs boson[2012]Standard Model
            2Wilczek F. [2012] [78] Elementary particles[2012]Future technologies
            3Lim CS. [2014] [79] Elementary particles[2014]Advance nuclear
            4Día-Cruz JL. [2019] [80] All elementary particles[2019]Nuclear and aerospace industries
            5Sakata S. [1956] [81] Electron, proton, neutron fundamental particlesEarly twentieth centuryMetal and semiconductor industries.
            6Gell-Mann M. [1953] [82] Traditional fundamental particlesEarly twentieth centuryNuclear industries
            7Barrett J. [2002] [83] Atomic particlesElectron, proton, neutron atomic particlesAtomic, Nuclear and semiconductor industries

            Moreover, electrostatic forces of attraction originate from the opposite charge polarization between leptons (electrons) and quarks (protons). The stabilization of this polarization creates nascent atom. The electromagnetic forces are electrostatic and electrodynamic (electromagnetic) in nature. Therefore, electromagnetic forces of attraction are involved in light propagation. The light propagates in the form of radiations, which are tiny quantum packets of particles. Almost all elements of the periodic table consist of atoms, and each individual element is represented by a different number of elementary particles, which are categorized into metals, non-metals, and gases. Based on elementary particles, the metals are classified by nature as alkali, alkaline, transition, lanthanides, actinides, metalloids, and radioactive. Medical isotopes, superconductors development, touch screen technologies, external beam radiotherapy and semiconductors materials are all applications of the Standard Model in advanced engineering[7783].

            6 CONCLUSION

            The atomic and modern quantum theories are reviewed the first time for the elemental mass origin and forces unification. At high energies, the elemental mass transform into higgs bosons, leptons, quarks and photons. According to the Standard Model, in reverse engineering, at a condition with low energies, these particles mediate (photons, gluons and gauge bosons mediations) and interact (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions) for atom formation. Atoms are building blocks of elements of periodic table. In future, the review article can be used for the implementation of elemental mass origin and forces unification in medical, power, semiconductor, nuclear and defense industries.


            The study was financially supported by Ministry of Research and Education, Republic of Estonia, and Tallinn University of Technology. 

            Conflicts of Interest

            The authors have no conflict of interest.

            Author Contribution

            Hussain A has studied and written this article; Abbas MM has reviewed and corrected this article.

            Abbreviation List

            W+, Positively charged bosons

            W-, Negatively charged bosons

            Z, Bosons

            F g , Gravitational force

            m1 and m2, Mass of interacting bodies

            G, Gravitational constant

            r, Central distance between interacting bodies

            E, Electric field

            v, Velocity of moving particle

            B, Magnetic field

            q, Charge particle

            F magnetic , Magnetic force

            F electrostatic , Electrostatic force

            K, Coulombic constant

            A, Number of nucleons

            e, Electrons

            μ, Muon

            τ, Tau

            V e, Electron neutrino

            V μ, Muon neutrino

            V τ, Tau neutrino

            u, Up quark

            d, Down quark

            c, Charm quark

            s, Strange quark

            t, Top quark

            b, Bottom quark

            H, Higgs field

            SU, Special unitary group

            QCD, Quantum chromodynamics

            EW, Electroweak

            GR, General relativity


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            Author and article information

            Journal of Modern Nanotechnology
            Innovation Forever Publishing Group (China )
            25 December 2021
            : 1
            : 1
            [1 ]Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
            [2 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
            [3 ]Center for Energy Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            Author notes
            *Correspondence to: Abrar Hussain; Email: abhuss@ 123456taltech.ee
            Copyright 2021, Abrar Hussain and Muhammad Mujtaba Abbas

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Page count
            Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 83, Pages: 8

            Clinical chemistry,Chemistry,Physical chemistry,Batteries & Fuel cells,Polymer chemistry
            higgs bosons,atomic structure,materials mass origin,forces unification,elemental cosmology


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