This chapter examines the European powers' military intervention in Ottoman Lebanon and Syria during the period 1860–1861. It first considers the local and international context prior to the intervention, focusing on Mount Lebanon, an autonomous administrative Ottoman entity distinct from the province of Syria, before discussing how Europeans saw themselves compared to how they portrayed Mount Lebanon's populations. It then analyzes the conditions that brought about the massacre of the Ottoman Christians in 1860, along with the European governments' reaction and the motives of their intervention. It also looks at the Paris Conference that was set up to clarify the nature and modalities of the humanitarian intervention. Finally, it explores the questions addressed by the European Commission, including the case of the thousands of refugees amassed in Beirut, and the consequences of the intervention.