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      The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry 

      Preparation of Water-Soluble Compounds by Covalent Attachment of Solubilizing Moieties


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          Physiochemical drug properties associated with in vivo toxicological outcomes.

          Relationships between physicochemical drug properties and toxicity were inferred from a data set consisting of animal in vivo toleration (IVT) studies on 245 preclinical Pfizer compounds; an increased likelihood of toxic events was found for less polar, more lipophilic compounds. This trend held across a wide range of types of toxicity and across a broad swath of chemical space.
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            Crystal structures of human serum albumin complexed with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

            The primary ligands of human serum albumin (HSA), an abundant plasma protein, are non-esterified fatty acids. In vivo, the majority of fatty acids associated with the protein are unsaturated. We present here the first high-resolution crystal structures of HSA complexed with two important unsaturated fatty acids, the monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1) and the polyunsaturated arachidonic acid (C20:4). Both compounds are observed to occupy the seven binding sites distributed across the protein that are also bound by medium and long-chain saturated fatty acids. Although C18:1 fatty acid binds each site on HSA in a conformation almost identical with that of the corresponding saturated compound (C18:0), the presence of multiple cis double bonds in C20:4 induces distinct binding configurations at some sites. The observed restriction on binding configurations plausibly accounts for differences in the pattern of binding affinities for the primary sites between polyunsaturated fatty acids and their saturated or monounsaturated counterparts. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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              Acidic and basic drugs in medicinal chemistry: a perspective.

              The acid/base properties of a molecule are among the most fundamental for drug action. However, they are often overlooked in a prospective design manner unless it has been established that a certain ionization state (e.g., quaternary base or presence of a carboxylic acid) appears to be required for activity. In medicinal chemistry optimization programs it is relatively common to attenuate basicity to circumvent undesired effects such as lack of biological selectivity or safety risks such as hERG or phospholipidosis. However, teams may not prospectively explore a range of carefully chosen compound pKa values as part of an overall chemistry strategy or design hypothesis. This review summarizes the potential advantages and disadvantages of both acidic and basic drugs and provides some new analyses based on recently available public data.

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