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      Augmented Cognition. Neurocognition and Machine Learning 

      Rim-to-Rim Wearables at the Canyon for Health (R2R WATCH): Experimental Design and Methodology

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          Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty.

          The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload was investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with varying levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was combined with the easiest tunnel task and the most difficult memory task with the most difficult tunnel task. Between the tunnel tasks, subjects had to fly a pursuit task in which a target jet had to be followed. Rest periods before and after the experiment were used as a baseline for the physiological measures. Mental workload was measured with heart period, continuous blood pressure, respiration and eye blinks. Several respiratory parameters, heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and the gain between systolic blood pressure and heart period (modulus) were scored. All measures showed differences between rest and flight, and between the pursuit and the tunnel task. Only heart period was sensitive to difficulty levels in the tunnel task. Heart rate variability increased when respiratory activity around 0.10 Hz increased, which occurred often. The modulus was hardly influenced by respiration and therefore appears to be a better measure than heart rate variability. Among the respiratory parameters, the duration of a respiratory cycle was the most sensitive to changes in workload. The time in between two successive eye blinks (blink interval) increased and the blink duration decreased as more visual information had to be processed. Increasing the difficulty of the memory task led to a decrement in blink interval, probably caused by subvocal activity during rehearsal of target letters. The data show that physiological measures are sensitive to mental effort, whereas rating scales are sensitive to both mental effort and task difficulty.
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            Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight.

            Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified.
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              Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

              Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness.
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                Author and book information

                Book Chapter
                2017
                May 18 2017
                : 263-274
                10.1007/978-3-319-58628-1_21
                64e960dc-44fb-4faa-b640-63d78269edab
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