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      The Effects of the Global Pandemic Process on the Social and Economic Structure and Public Policies in Combating the Pandemic 

      Public Financial Management Responses to the COVID-19: General Overview and Policy Practices in Turkey

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          Abstract

          The world faced an unpreceded crisis in 2020. Following the first COVID-19 case in China, many countries have closed their borders and introduced measures to prevent the spread of the virus. Nonetheless, the devastating effects of novel coronavirus spread across the globe. Many governments have endeavored to ensure accessibility of their health systems and sustain their health system. COVID-19 has had profound impacts and pressures on health systems. It has also led to severe social and economic risks. To protect public health and alleviate the risks posed by the COVID-19 on national economies, great many countries have adopted anti-covid policies. In this process, public financial management (PFM) systems and their components have been at the heart of anti-covid policies. While well-designed PFM systems have enabled the effective implementation of anti-covid policies, they have also prevented further deterioration in the financial structure. Thereby, PFM responses to the COVID-19 crisis have attracted considerable interest among both policymakers and academics. Given the fact that PFM systems may play an important role in easing unprecedented adverse effects of the COVID-19 crisis, this study focuses on PFM practices that is essential to minimize the adverse impacts of the COVID-19. To this end, it aims to evaluate what kind of solutions should be introduced in response to the COVID-19 Crisis by the governments, with a focus on Turkey’s experience.

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          History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery.

          Human coronaviruses, first characterized in the 1960s, are responsible for a substantial proportion of upper respiratory tract infections in children. Since 2003, at least 5 new human coronaviruses have been identified, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. NL63, representing a group of newly identified group I coronaviruses that includes NL and the New Haven coronavirus, has been identified worldwide. These viruses are associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease and are likely common human pathogens. The global distribution of a newly identified group II coronavirus, HKU1, has not yet been established. Coronavirology has advanced significantly in the past few years. The SARS epidemic put the animal coronaviruses in the spotlight. The background and history relative to this important and expanding research area are reviewed here.
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            The Role of the Joint Procurement Agreement during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Assessing Its Usefulness and Discussing Its Potential to Support a European Health Union

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              Public financial management reform: an ongoing journey towards good governance

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                10.3726/9783631857281.003.0007
                93a07894-6226-4030-8153-9bd4df4b46ae
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