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      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreaks, Vaccination, Politics and Society : The Continuing Challenge 

      COVID-19 in the United Kingdom: How a Mixed Welfare Regime Has Responded to the Pandemic

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      Springer International Publishing

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          Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more? A state-of-the-art report

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            Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic with the World Mortality Dataset

            Comparing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic between countries or across time is difficult because the reported numbers of cases and deaths can be strongly affected by testing capacity and reporting policy. Excess mortality, defined as the increase in all-cause mortality relative to the expected mortality, is widely considered as a more objective indicator of the COVID-19 death toll. However, there has been no global, frequently updated repository of the all-cause mortality data across countries. To fill this gap, we have collected weekly, monthly, or quarterly all-cause mortality data from 103 countries and territories, openly available as the regularly updated World Mortality Dataset. We used this dataset to compute the excess mortality in each country during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that in several worst-affected countries (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico) the excess mortality was above 50% of the expected annual mortality (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico) or above 400 excess deaths per 100,000 population (Peru, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia). At the same time, in several other countries (e.g. Australia and New Zealand) mortality during the pandemic was below the usual level, presumably due to social distancing measures decreasing the non-COVID infectious mortality. Furthermore, we found that while many countries have been reporting the COVID-19 deaths very accurately, some countries have been substantially underreporting their COVID-19 deaths (e.g. Nicaragua, Russia, Uzbekistan), by up to two orders of magnitude (Tajikistan). Our results highlight the importance of open and rapid all-cause mortality reporting for pandemic monitoring. Countries around the world reported 4.2 million deaths from SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) from the beginning of pandemic until the end of July 2021, but the actual number of deaths is likely higher. While some countries may have imperfect systems for counting deaths, others may have intentionally underreported them. To get a better estimate of deaths from an event such as a pandemic, scientists often compare the total number of deaths in a country during the event to the expected number of deaths based on data from previous years. This tells them how many excess deaths occurred during the event. To provide a more accurate count of deaths caused by COVID-19, Karlinsky and Kobak built a database called the World Mortality Dataset. It includes information on deaths from all causes from 103 countries. Karlinsky and Kobak used the database to compare the number of reported COVID-19 deaths reported to the excess deaths from all causes during the pandemic. Some of the hardest hit countries, including Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Mexico, experienced over 50% more deaths than expected during the pandemic. Meanwhile, other countries like Australia and New Zealand, reported fewer deaths than normal. This is likely because social distancing measures reduced deaths from infections like influenza. Many countries reported their COVID-19 deaths accurately, but Karlinsky and Kobak argue that other countries, including Nicaragua, Russia, and Uzbekistan, underreported COVID-19 deaths. Using their database, Karlinsky and Kobak estimate that, in those countries, there have been at least 1.4 times more deaths due to COVID-19 than reported – adding over 1 million extra deaths in total. But they note that the actual number is likely much higher because data from more than 100 countries were not available to include in the database. The World Mortality Dataset provides a more accurate picture of the number of people who died because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is available online and updated daily. The database may help scientists develop better mitigation strategies for this pandemic or future ones.
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              Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1326 cases from the UK Biobank

              Abstract Background We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) individuals is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic or behavioural factors. Methods We studied 4510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n = 1326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age, sex and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of (1) cardiometabolic factors [diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, smoking and body mass index (BMI)]; (2) 25(OH)-vitamin D; (3) poor diet; (4) Townsend deprivation score; (5) housing (home type, overcrowding) or (6) behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status. Results There was over-representation of men and BAME ethnicities in the COVID-19 positive group. BAME individuals had, on average, poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, greater material deprivation, and were more likely to live in larger households and in flats/apartments. Male sex, BAME ethnicity, higher BMI, higher Townsend deprivation score and household overcrowding were independently associated with significantly greater odds of COVID-19. The pattern of association was consistent for men and women; cardiometabolic, socio-demographic and behavioural factors did not attenuate sex/ethnicity associations. Conclusions In this study, sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 was not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels or socio-economic factors. Factors which underlie ethnic differences in COVID-19 may not be easily captured, and so investigation of alternative biological and genetic susceptibilities as well as more comprehensive assessment of the complex economic, social and behavioural differences should be prioritised.
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                Book Chapter
                2022
                September 29 2022
                : 305-318
                10.1007/978-3-031-09432-3_19
                c91e0cc2-ab00-4620-b2e9-a76882edcb83
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