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      Critical role for Cryopyrin/Nalp3 in activation of caspase-1 in response to viral infection and double-stranded RNA.

      The Journal of Biological Chemistry
      Animals, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Bone Marrow Cells, cytology, Carrier Proteins, metabolism, physiology, Caspase 1, Cytoskeletal Proteins, Enzyme Activation, Interleukin-18, Interleukin-1beta, Ligands, Macrophages, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Orthomyxoviridae, RNA, Double-Stranded, chemistry, Sendai virus

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          Viral infection induces the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-18 in macrophages through the activation of caspase-1, but the mechanism by which host cells sense viruses to induce caspase-1 activation is unknown. In this report, we have identified a signaling pathway leading to caspase-1 activation that is induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and viral infection that is mediated by Cryopyrin/Nalp3. Stimulation of macrophages with dsRNA, viral RNA, or its analog poly(I:C) induced the secretion of IL-1beta and IL-18 in a cryopyrin-dependent manner. Consistently, caspase-1 activation triggered by poly(I:C), dsRNA, and viral RNA was abrogated in macrophages lacking cryopyrin or the adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activating and recruitment domain) but proceeded normally in macrophages deficient in Toll-like receptor 3 or 7. We have also shown that infection with Sendai and influenza viruses activates the cryopyrin inflammasome. Finally, cryopyrin was required for IL-1beta production in response to poly(I:C) in vivo. These results identify a mechanism mediated by cryopyrin and ASC that links dsRNA and viral infection to caspase-1 activation resulting in IL-1beta and IL-18 production.

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