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The Spherical Nucleic Acids mRNA Detection Paradox : Imaging intracellular mRNA level or endosomal nucleases?

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      Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel.

      Nanomaterials are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. These materials are increasingly being used for commercial purposes such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and drug carriers. Materials in this size range may approach the length scale at which some specific physical or chemical interactions with their environment can occur. As a result, their properties differ substantially from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to perform exceptional feats of conductivity, reactivity, and optical sensitivity. Possible undesirable results of these capabilities are harmful interactions with biological systems and the environment, with the potential to generate toxicity. The establishment of principles and test procedures to ensure safe manufacture and use of nanomaterials in the marketplace is urgently required and achievable.
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        A guided tour into subcellular colocalization analysis in light microscopy.

        It is generally accepted that the functional compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells is reflected by the differential occurrence of proteins in their compartments. The location and physiological function of a protein are closely related; local information of a protein is thus crucial to understanding its role in biological processes. The visualization of proteins residing on intracellular structures by fluorescence microscopy has become a routine approach in cell biology and is increasingly used to assess their colocalization with well-characterized markers. However, image-analysis methods for colocalization studies are a field of contention and enigma. We have therefore undertaken to review the most currently used colocalization analysis methods, introducing the basic optical concepts important for image acquisition and subsequent analysis. We provide a summary of practical tips for image acquisition and treatment that should precede proper colocalization analysis. Furthermore, we discuss the application and feasibility of colocalization tools for various biological colocalization situations and discuss their respective strengths and weaknesses. We have created a novel toolbox for subcellular colocalization analysis under ImageJ, named JACoP, that integrates current global statistic methods and a novel object-based approach.
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          Oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles for intracellular gene regulation.

          We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-oligonucleotide complexes as intracellular gene regulation agents for the control of protein expression in cells. These oligonucleotide-modified nanoparticles have affinity constants for complementary nucleic acids that are higher than their unmodified oligonucleotide counterparts, are less susceptible to degradation by nuclease activity, exhibit greater than 99% cellular uptake, can introduce oligonucleotides at a higher effective concentration than conventional transfection agents, and are nontoxic to the cells under the conditions studied. By chemically tailoring the density of DNA bound to the surface of gold nanoparticles, we demonstrated a tunable gene knockdown.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ScienceOpen Research
            ScienceOpen
            2199-1006
            April 2016
            :
            :
            10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-CHEM.AZ1MJU.v2

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