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      Toward “rocking-chair type” Mg–Li dual-salt batteries

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          Abstract

          This work is devoted to fundamental electrochemistry on a novel concept of rechargeable battery, "rocking-chair type" Mg–Li dual-salt battery, in which both Mg and Li cations are carrier ions.

          Abstract

          High energy-density rechargeable batteries are strongly demanded from the viewpoint of energy and environmental concern. This work is devoted to fundamental electrochemistry on a novel concept of rechargeable batteries, “rocking-chair type” Mg–Li dual-salt batteries (DSBs), where both Mg and Li cations are carrier ions. In this system, dangerous dendritic growth is drastically suppressed by co-electrodeposition of Mg and Li, and Mg–Li alloys can be used as anode materials with high electrical capacities. As a DSB cathode material that can accommodate both Mg and Li cations, we use a spinel oxide MgCo 2O 4, in which an eccentric insertion mechanism, the “intercalation & push-out” process, occurs. Mg insertion occurs at 2.9 V vs. Mg 2+/Mg and Li insertion occurs at 3.1 V vs. Li +/Li, being consistent with ab initio calculations, and its capacity approximately amounts to 150–200 mA h g −1. In the combination of MgCo 2O 4 and Mg 50Li 50 alloys, the cell voltage during discharge is as high as about 2–3 V. The concept of rocking-chair type DSB systems provides a new strategy for future safe rechargeable batteries combining high energy/power densities.

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          Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

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            Efficient iterative schemes forab initiototal-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set

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              Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

              The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been hindered by two problems. First, owing to the chemical activity of Mg, only solutions that neither donate nor accept protons are suitable as electrolytes; but most of these solutions allow the growth of passivating surface films, which inhibit any electrochemical reaction. Second, the choice of cathode materials has been limited by the difficulty of intercalating Mg ions in many hosts. Following previous studies of the electrochemistry of Mg electrodes in various non-aqueous solutions, and of a variety of intercalation electrodes, we have now developed rechargeable Mg battery systems that show promise for applications. The systems comprise electrolyte solutions based on Mg organohaloaluminate salts, and Mg(x)Mo3S4 cathodes, into which Mg ions can be intercalated reversibly, and with relatively fast kinetics. We expect that further improvements in the energy density will make these batteries a viable alternative to existing systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCAET
                Journal of Materials Chemistry A
                J. Mater. Chem. A
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7488
                2050-7496
                2015
                2015
                : 3
                : 19
                : 10188-10194
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering
                [2 ]Kyoto University
                [3 ]Kyoto 606-8501
                [4 ]Japan
                [5 ]Materials Research Center for Element Strategy
                [6 ]Tokyo Institute of Technology
                [7 ]Yokohama 226-8503
                [8 ]Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center
                [9 ]Osaka Prefecture University
                [10 ]Osaka 599-8570
                [11 ]Department of Molecular Chemistry and Biochemistry
                [12 ]Doshisha University
                [13 ]Kyoto 610-0321
                Article
                10.1039/C5TA01365H
                002b9bbe-d55b-40d7-be82-315b977e02da
                © 2015
                History

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