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      Polymorphism-Dependent Emission for Di(p-methoxylphenyl)dibenzofulvene and Analogues: Optical Waveguide/Amplified Spontaneous Emission Behaviors

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          Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers

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            QM/MM methods for biomolecular systems.

            Combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) approaches have become the method of choice for modeling reactions in biomolecular systems. Quantum-mechanical (QM) methods are required for describing chemical reactions and other electronic processes, such as charge transfer or electronic excitation. However, QM methods are restricted to systems of up to a few hundred atoms. However, the size and conformational complexity of biopolymers calls for methods capable of treating up to several 100,000 atoms and allowing for simulations over time scales of tens of nanoseconds. This is achieved by highly efficient, force-field-based molecular mechanics (MM) methods. Thus to model large biomolecules the logical approach is to combine the two techniques and to use a QM method for the chemically active region (e.g., substrates and co-factors in an enzymatic reaction) and an MM treatment for the surroundings (e.g., protein and solvent). The resulting schemes are commonly referred to as combined or hybrid QM/MM methods. They enable the modeling of reactive biomolecular systems at a reasonable computational effort while providing the necessary accuracy.
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              Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers.

              Electrically driven semiconductor lasers are used in technologies ranging from telecommunications and information storage to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. The success of this class of lasers is due in part to well-developed planar semiconductor growth and processing, which enables reproducible fabrication of integrated, electrically driven devices. Yet this approach to device fabrication is also costly and difficult to integrate directly with other technologies such as silicon microelectronics. To overcome these issues for future applications, there has been considerable interest in using organic molecules, polymers, and inorganic nanostructures for lasers, because these materials can be fashioned into devices by chemical processing. Indeed, amplified stimulated emission and lasing have been reported for optically pumped organic systems and, more recently, inorganic nanocrystals and nanowires. However, electrically driven lasing, which is required in most applications, has met with several difficulties in organic systems, and has not been addressed for assembled nanocrystals or nanowires. Here we investigate the feasibility of achieving electrically driven lasing from individual nanowires. Optical and electrical measurements made on single-crystal cadmium sulphide nanowires show that these structures can function as Fabry-Perot optical cavities with mode spacing inversely related to the nanowire length. Investigations of optical and electrical pumping further indicate a threshold for lasing as characterized by optical modes with instrument-limited linewidths. Electrically driven nanowire lasers, which might be assembled in arrays capable of emitting a wide range of colours, could improve existing applications and suggest new opportunities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Functional Materials
                Adv. Funct. Mater.
                Wiley
                1616301X
                December 05 2012
                December 05 2012
                : 22
                : 23
                : 4862-4872
                Article
                10.1002/adfm.201201482
                023e3dfa-a2d1-4f2e-9f9f-04a60ba45992
                © 2012

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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