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      Altered serum levels of type I collagen turnover indicators accompanied by IL-6 and IL-8 release in stable COPD

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          Abstract

          Background

          COPD, characterized by chronic inflammation and airway remodeling, has significant pathological alterations in composition and deposition of the extracellular matrix. The expression of procollagen 1 C-terminal peptide (PICP) and collagen type 1 C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP), two major by-products in the synthesis and degradation of collagen, was shown to be positively correlated with inflammatory mediator levels in previous studies.

          Purpose

          In this study, we investigated whether the serum concentrations of PICP and ICTP were associated with the inflammation level for patients with stable COPD.

          Patients and methods

          We collected serum samples from 25 control subjects and 20 patients with stable COPD from December 2011 to October 2012 in Shanghai Zhongshan Hospital and Shanghai Dahua Hospital. We determined concentrations of PICP, ICTP, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.

          Results

          Demographic characteristics were comparable between the two groups. In patients with stable COPD, serum levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were all elevated compared to control subjects, but only changes of IL-6 achieved statistical significance. Serum concentration of PICP was significantly elevated in patients with COPD, and level of ICTP was slightly decreased. Moreover, serum concentrations of PICP were positively correlated with the levels of both IL-6 and IL-8.

          Conclusion

          The increased levels of serum PICP in COPD might indicate the condition of airway remodeling, and IL-6 and/or IL-8 might play an important role in stimulating collagen synthesis.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Versatile functions for IL-6 in metabolism and cancer.

          Owing to its abundance in inflammatory settings, interleukin IL-6 is frequently viewed as a proinflammatory cytokine, with functions that parallel those of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1β in the context of inflammation. However, accumulating evidence points to a broader role for IL-6 in a variety of (patho)physiological conditions, including functions related to the resolution of inflammation. We review recent findings on the complex biological functions governed by IL-6 signaling, focusing on its role in inflammation-associated cancer and metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We propose that the anti-inflammatory functions of IL-6 may extend to multiple settings and cell types, and suggest that these dimensions should be incorporated in therapeutic approaches to these diseases. Finally, we outline important areas of inquiry towards understanding this pleiotropic cytokine.
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            COPD in China

            Although, to our knowledge, there has been no exhaustive or credible review of the evidence of the disease burden of COPD in China, COPD has become an increasing public health concern to the Chinese medical community. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence and evaluate and clarify the disease burden of COPD in China with the aim of improving effective management. We reviewed previous studies of COPD in China, which included data on prevalence, mortality, disease burden, risk factors, diagnosis, and management by searching related Web sites, including PubMed, ProQuest, and Thomson Reuters' Web of Knowledge, as well as major Chinese databases and government Web sites. Reported COPD prevalence varied between 5% and 13% in different provinces/cities across China. In 2008, COPD ranked fourth as a leading cause of death in urban areas and third in rural areas. In addition, COPD accounted for 1.6% of all hospital admissions in China in that year. The high prevalence of smoking and biomass fuel use acted as major contributors to the high occurrence of COPD in China. Management of COPD in China should focus on adjusting the distribution of medical resources and on addressing public health policies to facilitate earlier diagnosis in rural areas, aim to reduce smoking prevalence, improve patients' self-management, and keep physicians' knowledge up to date and consistent with current guidelines. COPD is one of the most challenging medical issues facing China because of its influence on both personal and public health and its impact on the economy. Optimal management strategies should be adopted and strengthened immediately.
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              COPD, bone metabolism, and osteoporosis.

              COPD and osteoporosis are strongly associated because of common risk factors such as age, smoking, and inactivity. In addition, COPD-related systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, and the use of systemic corticosteroids enhance ongoing bone destruction. Osteoporosis, in turn, may cause fragility fractures, which further impair mobility and increase morbidity and mortality. Vertebral compression fractures and rib cage fractures in patients with COPD may also reduce pulmonary function or enhance exacerbations. Early prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD is, therefore, important and should be based on integrated risk assessment tools such as FRAX, which take bone mineral density, history of fragility fractures, and population-specific clinical factors into account. As long as intervention studies focusing on the bone in COPD are lacking, a more rigorous application of existing treatment guidelines of osteoporosis in general is mandatory.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2019
                03 January 2019
                : 14
                : 163-168
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, huxizhangjing@ 123456foxmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Dahua Hospital, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jing Zhang, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, 180 Fenglin Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200032, China, Tel/fax +86 21 6 404 1990, Email huxizhangjing@ 123456foxmail.com
                Article
                copd-14-163
                10.2147/COPD.S188139
                6322508
                © 2019 Zeng et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ ). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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