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      Performance evaluation of the sterilization process with Bowie & Dick test and biological indicator in the quality control of a blood bank in Peru

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          Abstract

          Managing contaminated waste in blood banks is a crucial process that must end with the safe disposal of blood products. In this sense, practical methods and indicators must be used to guarantee the operability of autoclave equipment and the sterility of treated waste to mitigate the risk of biological exposure and hospital biosafety. We designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the performance the autoclaving process with Bowie & Dick test and biological indicator at the Hemotherapy and Blood Bank Unit of the Cayetano Heredia Hospital in Peru. Fifty autoclaving processes were carried out independently for the Bowie & Dick tests and biological indicators based on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. Autoclaving was programmed at 134°C for 3.5 minutes for the Bowie & Dick test, while, for the biological indicator, it was programmed at 121°C for 5 minutes. Both in the presence of contaminated waste. The autoclaving process evaluated by the Bowie & Dick test had a compliance rate of 80% (CI95: 66.3%–90.0%), while, by the biological indicator, 90% (CI95: 78.2%–96.7%). We did not find significant differences between the results of both tests ( P = .689; Fisher exact test). The compliance rate in the autoclaving process within the blood bank of a Peruvian Hospital is acceptable; however, there are actions for continuous improvement, especially at the vacuum level in the autoclaving process.

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          Manual de bioseguridad en el laboratorio

          (2005)
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            Autoclave performance and operator knowledge of autoclave use in primary care: a survey of UK practices.

            Changes in the delivery of health care have increased the demand for minor surgical and screening procedures in general practice. This has increased the risk of cross-infection with blood-borne viruses and the demand for sterile instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and training of medical personnel in England and Wales on aspects of autoclave use, and to test the effectiveness of their practice autoclaves. An anonymous postal questionnaire and autoclave performance survey using biological indicators was made of 700 general medical practitioners selected at random from FHSA lists from 12 Health Authorities in England and Wales. The overall response rate was 53.1% (N= 372) comprising 10% general practitioners and 90% practice nurses. Eighty-two percent of respondents used autoclaves with a mean age of 2.5 years, of which 91% had been serviced in the past year. While 35% of respondents made daily observation of gauges, 19% did not routinely monitor autoclave effectiveness. Six autoclaves failed to sterilize the spore test ampoules. Fourteen percent of respondents did not autoclave instruments after every patient. Only 33.1% reported wearing gloves during minor operations. Fifty five percent had training in cross-infection prevention. It was concluded that although there has been improvement in instrument decontamination procedures in general practice compared with previous surveys, further education of medical practitioners and practice nurses in the use of autoclaves and infection prevention and control is indicated. The failure of 2% of the autoclaves to kill spores suggests the need for increased monitoring of autoclave performance. Two-thirds of practitioners exposed themselves to increased risk of infection by carrying out minor surgery without the protection of gloves. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.
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              Evaluation of new technique of sterilization using biological indicator

              Background: A novel technique of sterilization of endodontic files is introduced in this article. Aims: Newly introduced sterilization unit, named “SteriFast” is compared with autoclave and glass bead sterilizer using biological indicator. Materials and Methods: Spore strips of Bacillus pumilus were cultured in nutrient broth. This cultured media was used to contaminate the experimental samples of endodontic files. These contaminated files were sterilized using three different techniques. The sterilized files were transferred into nutrient medium under aseptic condition. The results were observed after 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days. Results: The results showed that autoclave and new sterilization device (SteriFast) showed complete sterilization. The files sterilized using glass bead sterilizer showed bacterial growth (80%). Conclusions: Thus, it proves that autoclave and SteriFast are ideal techniques of sterilization of endodontic files. Glass bead sterilizer does not completely sterilize the files. The article also compares SteriFast and autoclave in other aspects such as its design, basic principle, advantages, and disadvantages. The article also describes features and design of SteriFast, used for all kind of small dental instruments.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MD
                Medicine
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Hagerstown, MD )
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                10 November 2023
                10 November 2023
                : 102
                : 45
                : e35293
                Affiliations
                [a ] Universidad Alas Peruanas, Lima, Perú
                [b ] Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú
                [c ] Carrera de Medicina Humana, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Perú
                [d ] Vicerectorado de Investigación, Universidad Privada Norbert Wiener, Lima, Perú
                [e ] .Escuela Profesional de Tecnología Médica, Universidad Continental, Lima, Perú.
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Fernando Soncco-Llulluy, Health Administration, Universidad Científica del Sur, Antigua Panamericana Sur Km 19, Lima 15067, Perú (e-mail: fsoncco@ 123456cientifica.edu.pe ).
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1665-2332
                Article
                00119
                10.1097/MD.0000000000035293
                10637551
                37960832
                03bb5756-fbf8-464f-bb05-482cbc203bd0
                Copyright © 2023 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

                History
                : 11 May 2023
                : 28 August 2023
                : 29 August 2023
                Categories
                6600
                Research Article
                Observational Study
                Custom metadata
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                T

                autoclave,biological indicator,bowie & dick test,sterilization

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