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      Discrimination in Context: Examining Neighborhood-Level Variation in the Incidence and Adverse Effects of Perceived Racial and Ethnic Discrimination Among Chicago Youth

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          Abstract

          A growing body of research links interpersonal racial and ethnic discrimination to adverse youth outcomes. Yet, studies examining the relevance of neighborhood context for discrimination are sparse. This study examines neighborhood-level variation in the incidence and impact of perceived racial and ethnic discrimination on depressive symptoms, suicidal behavior, violent behavior, and substance use. Hierarchical regression models on a sample of 1333 African American and Hispanic youth (52.44% female; x̄ = 13.03 years, SD = 3.25 at wave 1) residing in 238 Chicago neighborhoods from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods indicated little to no neighborhood-level variation in the incidence and impact of discrimination. Findings suggest that the experience of discrimination among youth of color is ubiquitous.

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          Multiple imputation by chained equations is a flexible and practical approach to handling missing data. We describe the principles of the method and show how to impute categorical and quantitative variables, including skewed variables. We give guidance on how to specify the imputation model and how many imputations are needed. We describe the practical analysis of multiply imputed data, including model building and model checking. We stress the limitations of the method and discuss the possible pitfalls. We illustrate the ideas using a data set in mental health, giving Stata code fragments. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies.

              The authors review the available empirical evidence from population-based studies of the association between perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination and health. This research indicates that discrimination is associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and, especially, mental health status. However, the extant research does not adequately address whether and how exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of disease. Gaps in the literature include limitations linked to measurement of discrimination, research designs, and inattention to the way in which the association between discrimination and health unfolds over the life course. Research on stress points to important directions for the future assessment of discrimination and the testing of the underlying processes and mechanisms by which discrimination can lead to changes in health.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                g.zimmerman@northeastern.edu
                trovato.d@northeastern.edu
                miller-smith@northeastern.edu
                Journal
                Race Soc Probl
                Race Soc Probl
                Race and Social Problems
                Springer US (New York )
                1867-1748
                1867-1756
                14 May 2022
                : 1-24
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.261112.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2173 3359, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, , Northeastern University, ; 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 USA
                Article
                9367
                10.1007/s12552-022-09367-2
                9106986
                07076191-ea79-4af0-86dd-35c9be64b3ad
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2022

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Categories
                Article

                Health & Social care
                depression,discrimination,neighborhood,substance use,suicidal behavior,violent offending

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