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      Annual Incidence of Nephrolithiasis among Children and Adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012

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          Abstract

          The prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the United States has increased substantially, but recent changes in incidence with respect to age, sex, and race are not well characterized. This study examined temporal trends in the annual incidence and cumulative risk of nephrolithiasis among children and adults living in South Carolina over a 16-year period.

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          Most cited references22

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          Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States.

          This review focuses on dietary intake and dietary supplement use among the U.S. population age 1-74 based on four National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000. Secular trends in intake of energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, sodium, calcium, iron, folate, zinc, vitamins A and C, fruits, vegetables, and grain products are summarized. During the 30-year period, mean energy intake increased among adults, and changed little among children age 1-19, except for an increase among adolescent females. Factors contributing to increases in energy intake include increases in the percentage of the population eating away from home (particularly at fast-food restaurants), larger portion sizes of foods and beverages, increased consumption of sweetened beverages, changes in snacking habits, and improved dietary methodology. Dietary supplement use increased among adult men and women, decreased among children age 1-5, and was stable for children age 6-11 and adolescents.
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            Direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis in an employed population: opportunity for disease management?

            More than 5% of the United States population has been diagnosed with nephrolithiasis and about one half of (first-time) stone formers will have a recurrence within 5 years. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis is concentrated among working age adults, yet little prior work has examined the economic burden of the disease on employers and their employees. We sought to estimate the direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis for working age adults (18-64) with employer-provided insurance.
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              Climate-related increase in the prevalence of urolithiasis in the United States.

              An unanticipated result of global warming is the likely northward expansion of the present-day southeastern U.S. kidney stone "belt." The fraction of the U.S. population living in high-risk zones for nephrolithiasis will grow from 40% in 2000 to 56% by 2050, and to 70% by 2095. Predictions based on a climate model of intermediate severity warming (SRESa1b) indicate a climate-related increase of 1.6-2.2 million lifetime cases of nephrolithiasis by 2050, representing up to a 30% increase in some climate divisions. Nationwide, the cost increase associated with this rise in nephrolithiasis would be $0.9-1.3 billion annually (year-2000 dollars), representing a 25% increase over current expenditures. The impact of these changes will be geographically concentrated, depending on the precise relationship between temperature and stone risk. Stone risk may abruptly increase at a threshold temperature (nonlinear model) or increase steadily with temperature change (linear model) or some combination thereof. The linear model predicts increases by 2050 that are concentrated in California, Texas, Florida, and the Eastern Seaboard; the nonlinear model predicts concentration in a geographic band stretching from Kansas to Kentucky and Northern California, immediately south of the threshold isotherm.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
                1555-9041
                1555-905X
                March 07 2016
                January 14 2016
                : 11
                : 3
                : 488-496
                Article
                10.2215/CJN.07610715
                4791823
                26769765
                07bcd8b9-397d-431d-93e2-900f16228a1e
                © 2016
                History

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