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Canal to diaphysis ratio as a risk factor for hip fractures and hip fracture pattern


EDP Sciences

hip fractures, canal-diaphysis ratio, osteoporosis

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      Introduction: Osteoporosis and related fractures constitute a significant burden on modern healthcare. The standard method of diagnosing osteoporosis with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan is limited by accessibility and expense. The thickness of the cortex of the proximal femur on plain radiographs has been suggested to be a method for indicating osteoporosis and as a risk factor of hip fractures in the elderly. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of the canal-diaphysis ratio (CDR) as a risk factor for developing a hip fracture, excluding patients presenting under 50 years old, following high-energy trauma or pathological fractures. The CDR was measured in 84 neck of femur (NOF) fracture patients and 84 intertrochanteric hip fracture patients, and these were subsequently compared to the CDR of 84 patients without a hip fracture. Measurements were taken on two occasions by two members of the orthopaedic team, so as to assess the test’s inter- and intraobserver reliability. Results: In comparison to those without a fracture, there was a significant difference in the CDR of patients with a NOF fracture (P < 0.0001) and intertrochanteric fracture (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the odds of having a CDR above 60.67 and 64.41 were significantly higher in the NOF (OR = 2.214, P = 0.0129) and intertrochanteric fracture (OR = 32.27, P < 0.0001) groups respectively, when compared to the non-fractured group. The analysis of the test’s inter- and intraobserver reliability showed strong levels of reproducibility. Discussion: We concluded that a raised CDR was associated with an increased incidence of NOF and intertrochanteric hip fracture. Measuring the CDR can thus be considered as a reproducible and inexpensive method of identifying elderly patients at risk of hip fractures.

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