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      Chilling requirements and dormancy evolution in grapevine buds Translated title: Requerimentos de frio e evolução da dormência em gemas de videiras

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Fluctuations in winter chilling availability impact bud dormancy and budburst. The objective of this work was to determine chilling requirements to induce and overcome endodormancy (dormancy controlled by chilling) of buds in different grape cultivars. ‘Chardonnay’, ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ shoots were collected in Veranópolis-RS vineyards in 2010, and submitted to a constant 3 °C temperature or daily cycles of 3/15 °C for 12/12h or 18/6h, until reaching 1120 chilling hours (CH, sum of hours with temperature ≤ 7.2 °C). Periodically, part of the samples in each treatment was transferred to 25 °C for budburst evaluation (green tip). Chilling requirements to induce and overcome endodormancy vary among cultivars, reaching a total of 136 CH for ‘Chardonnay’, 298 CH for ‘Merlot’ and 392 CH for ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’. Of these, approximately 39, 53 and 91 CH are required for induction of endodormancy in the three cultivars, respectively. The thermal regimes tested (constant or alternating) do not influence the response pattern of each cultivar to cold, with 15 °C being inert in the CH accumulation process. In addition, time required to start budburst reduces with the increase in CH, at a rate of one day per 62 CH, without significant impacts on budburst uniformity.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO Flutuações na disponibilidade de frio hibernal afetam a dormencia e brotação de gemas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar requerimentos de frio para indução e superação da endodormência (dormência controlada pelo frio) de gemas em diferentes cultivares de videira. Estacas de ‘Chardonnay’, ‘Merlot’ e ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ foram coletadas em vinhedos de Veranópolis-RS em 2010 e submetidas à temperatura de 3 °C constante ou ciclos diários de 3/15 °C por 12/12h ou 18/6h, até 1120 horas de frio (HF, soma de horas com temperatura ≤ 7.2 °C). Periodicamente, parte das estacas de cada tratamento foi transferida para 25 °C, para avaliação da brotação (ponta verde). Requerimentos de frio para indução e superação da endodormência variam entre cultivares, alcançando um total de 136 HF para ‘Chardonnay’, 298 HF para ‘Merlot’ e 392 HF para ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’. Destes, aproximadamente 39, 53 e 91 HF, respectivamente, são necessárias para indução da endodormência. Os regimes térmicos testados (constante ou alternado) não afetam o padrão de resposta de cada cultivar ao frio, sendo 15 °C inerte no processo de acúmulo de HF. O tempo necessário para iniciar a brotação diminui com o aumento de HF, à taxa de um dia para cada 62 HF, sem impactos significativos na uniformidade de brotação.

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          Most cited references28

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          Declining chilling and its impact on temperate perennial crops

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            Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

            Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.
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              Dormancy of grapevine buds - facts and speculation

              S Lavee, P. May (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cagro
                Ciência e Agrotecnologia
                Ciênc. agrotec.
                Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brazil )
                1413-7054
                1981-1829
                August 2018
                : 42
                : 4
                : 364-371
                Affiliations
                [1] Veranópolis orgnameSecretaria de Agricultura, Pecuária, Irrigação, Reforma Agrária, Pesca e Aquicultura orgdiv1Departamento de Diagnóstico e Pesquisa Agropecuária Brazil
                [2] Bento Gonçalves Distrito Federal orgnameEmbrapa orgdiv1Embrapa Uva e Vinho Brazil
                Article
                S1413-70542018000400364
                10.1590/1413-70542018424014618
                09ae4b06-e177-42ce-8565-a0f77543b77c

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 26 June 2018
                : 06 August 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO Brazil


                endodormancy,budburst,Vitis vinifera.,Horas de frio,endodormência,Chilling hours,brotação

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