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      Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Profiles of Proton Pump Inhibitors: An Update

      review-article
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      Drug Safety
      Springer International Publishing

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          Abstract

          Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used extensively for the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders, often over the long term, which raises the potential for clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving concomitant medications. These drug–drug interactions have been previously reviewed. However, the current knowledge is likely to have advanced, so a thorough review of the literature published since 2006 was conducted. This identified new studies of drug interactions that are modulated by gastric pH. These studies showed the effect of a PPI-induced increase in intragastric pH on mycophenolate mofetil pharmacokinetics, which were characterised by a decrease in the maximum exposure and availability of mycophenolic acid, at least at early time points. Post-2006 data were also available outlining the altered pharmacokinetics of protease inhibitors with concomitant PPI exposure. New data for the more recently marketed dexlansoprazole suggest it has no impact on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam, phenytoin, theophylline and warfarin. The CYP2C19-mediated interaction that seems to exist between clopidogrel and omeprazole or esomeprazole has been shown to be clinically important in research published since the 2006 review; this effect is not seen as a class effect of PPIs. Finally, data suggest that coadministration of PPIs with methotrexate may affect methotrexate pharmacokinetics, although the mechanism of interaction is not well understood. As was shown in the previous review, individual PPIs differ in their propensities to interact with other drugs and the extent to which their interaction profiles have been defined. The interaction profiles of omeprazole and pantoprazole sodium (pantoprazole-Na) have been studied most extensively. Several studies have shown that omeprazole carries a considerable potential for drug interactions because of its high affinity for CYP2C19 and moderate affinity for CYP3A4. In contrast, pantoprazole-Na appears to have lower potential for interactions with other medications. Lansoprazole and rabeprazole also seem to have a weaker potential for interactions than omeprazole, although their interaction profiles, along with those of esomeprazole and dexlansoprazole, have been less extensively investigated. Only a few drug interactions involving PPIs are of clinical significance. Nonetheless, the potential for drug interactions should be considered when choosing a PPI to manage gastric acid-related disorders. This is particularly relevant for elderly patients taking multiple medications, or for those receiving a concomitant medication with a narrow therapeutic index.

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          Most cited references134

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          Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

          To estimate the incidence of serious and fatal adverse drug reactions (ADR) in hospital patients. Four electronic databases were searched from 1966 to 1996. Of 153, we selected 39 prospective studies from US hospitals. Data extracted independently by 2 investigators were analyzed by a random-effects model. To obtain the overall incidence of ADRs in hospitalized patients, we combined the incidence of ADRs occurring while in the hospital plus the incidence of ADRs causing admission to hospital. We excluded errors in drug administration, noncompliance, overdose, drug abuse, therapeutic failures, and possible ADRs. Serious ADRs were defined as those that required hospitalization, were permanently disabling, or resulted in death. The overall incidence of serious ADRs was 6.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2%-8.2%) and of fatal ADRs was 0.32% (95% CI, 0.23%-0.41%) of hospitalized patients. We estimated that in 1994 overall 2216000 (1721000-2711000) hospitalized patients had serious ADRs and 106000 (76000-137000) had fatal ADRs, making these reactions between the fourth and sixth leading cause of death. The incidence of serious and fatal ADRs in US hospitals was found to be extremely high. While our results must be viewed with circumspection because of heterogeneity among studies and small biases in the samples, these data nevertheless suggest that ADRs represent an important clinical issue.
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            Risk of adverse outcomes associated with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following acute coronary syndrome.

            Prior mechanistic studies reported that omeprazole decreases the platelet inhibitory effects of clopidogrel, yet the clinical significance of these findings is not clear. To assess outcomes of patients taking clopidogrel with or without a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Retrospective cohort study of 8205 patients with ACS taking clopidogrel after discharge from 127 Veterans Affairs hospitals between October 1, 2003, and January 31, 2006. Vital status information was available for all patients through September 30, 2006. All-cause mortality or rehospitalization for ACS. Of 8205 patients taking clopidogrel after discharge, 63.9% (n = 5244) were prescribed PPI at discharge, during follow-up, or both and 36.1% (n = 2961) were not prescribed PPI. Death or rehospitalization for ACS occurred in 20.8% (n = 615) of patients taking clopidogrel without PPI and 29.8% (n = 1561) of patients taking clopidogrel plus PPI. In multivariable analyses, use of clopidogrel plus PPI was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization for ACS compared with use of clopidogrel without PPI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.41). Among patients taking clopidogrel after hospital discharge and prescribed PPI at any point during follow-up (n = 5244), periods of use of clopidogrel plus PPI (compared with periods of use of clopidogrel without PPI) were associated with a higher risk of death or rehospitalization for ACS (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.46). In analyses of secondary outcomes, patients taking clopidogrel plus PPI had a higher risk of hospitalizations for recurrent ACS compared with patients taking clopidogrel without PPI (14.6% vs 6.9%; AOR, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.57-2.20]) and revascularization procedures (15.5% vs 11.9%; AOR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.30-1.71]), but not for all-cause mortality (19.9% vs 16.6%; AOR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.80-1.05]). The association between use of clopidogrel plus PPI and increased risk of adverse outcomes also was consistent using a nested case-control study design (AOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.54). In addition, use of PPI without clopidogrel was not associated with death or rehospitalization for ACS among patients not taking clopidogrel after hospital discharge (n = 6450) (AOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.85-1.13). Concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPI after hospital discharge for ACS was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes than use of clopidogrel without PPI, suggesting that use of PPI may be associated with attenuation of benefits of clopidogrel after ACS.
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              A population-based study of the drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel.

              Most proton pump inhibitors inhibit the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The clinical significance of this drug interaction is unknown. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study among patients aged 66 years or older who commenced clopidogrel between Apr. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2007, following hospital discharge after treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The cases in our study were those readmitted with acute myocardial infarction within 90 days after discharge. We performed a secondary analysis considering events within 1 year. Event-free controls (at a ratio of 3:1) were matched to cases on age, percutaneous coronary intervention and a validated risk score. We categorized exposure to proton pump inhibitors before the index date as current (within 30 days), previous (31-90 days) or remote (91-180 days). Among 13 636 patients prescribed clopidogrel following acute myocardial infarction, we identified 734 cases readmitted with myocardial infarction and 2057 controls. After extensive multivariable adjustment, current use of proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of reinfarction (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.57). We found no association with more distant exposure to proton pump inhibitors or in multiple sensitivity analyses. In a stratified analysis, pantoprazole, which does not inhibit cytochrome P450 2C19, had no association with readmission for myocardial infarction (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.70-1.47). Among patients receiving clopidogrel following acute myocardial infarction, concomitant therapy with proton pump inhibitors other than pantoprazole was associated with a loss of the beneficial effects of clopidogrel and an increased risk of reinfarction.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +49-6171-5857129 , +49-6171-585725 , Ralph-Steven.Wedemeyer@socratec-pharma.de
                Journal
                Drug Saf
                Drug Saf
                Drug Safety
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0114-5916
                1179-1942
                19 February 2014
                19 February 2014
                2014
                : 37
                : 201-211
                Affiliations
                SocraTec CSC GmbH, Im Setzling 35, 61440 Oberursel, Germany
                Article
                144
                10.1007/s40264-014-0144-0
                3975086
                24550106
                09e03100-5b14-4f69-8a25-58a5130d4902
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

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