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# A systematic review of the outcomes of osteoporotic fracture patients after hospital discharge: morbidity, subsequent fractures, and mortality

Dove Medical Press

osteoporosis

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### Abstract

Purpose Osteoporotic fracture is the main complication of osteoporosis. The current management is to discharge patients as early as possible so they can get back to their daily activities. Once discharged, there are three main issues relating to morbidity, mortality, and risk of a subsequent fracture that need to be addressed and discussed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate the evidence from published literature, to determine the outcome of osteoporotic fracture patients after their hospital discharge. Methods The MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched, using the terms “osteoporosis”, “fracture”, “osteoporotic fracture”, “hip fracture”, and “vertebral fracture”. We included only human studies published in English between 2004 and 2014. The reference lists of included studies were thoroughly reviewed in search for other relevant studies. Results A total of 18 studies met the selection criteria. Most were observational and cohort studies. Out of all the studies, five studies looked into the morbidity, six studies looked into the risk of subsequent fractures, and seven studies looked into mortality. Vertebral fracture caused the greatest health burden, but hip fracture patients were the main users of informal care after hospital discharge. There was an increased risk of a subsequent fracture after a primary fracture compared with the control group, a cohort comparison, or the general population. Osteoporotic fractures, especially hip fractures, are associated with higher mortality rate despite the advances in the management of osteoporotic fracture cases. Conclusion There is strong evidence to show that after hospital discharge, osteoporotic fracture patients are faced with higher morbidity, subsequent fractures, and mortality.

### Most cited references61

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### 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary.

(2010)
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### Estimating hip fracture morbidity, mortality and costs.

(2003)
To estimate lifetime morbidity, mortality, and costs from hip fracture incorporating the effect of deficits in activities of daily living. Markov computer cohort simulation considering short- and long-term outcomes attributable to hip fractures. Data estimates were based on published literature, and costs were based primarily on Medicare reimbursement rates. Postacute hospital facility. Eighty-year-old community dwellers with hip fractures. Life expectancy, nursing facility days, and costs. Hip fracture reduced life expectancy by 1.8 years or 25% compared with an age- and sex-matched general population. About 17% of remaining life was spent in a nursing facility. The lifetime attributable cost of hip fracture was $81,300, of which nearly half (44%) related to nursing facility expenses. The development of deficits in ADLs after hip fracture resulted in substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs. Hip fractures result in significant mortality, morbidity, and costs. The estimated lifetime cost for all hip fractures in the United States in 1997 likely exceeded$20 billion. These results emphasize the importance of current and future interventions to decrease the incidence of hip fracture.
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### Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older - a population-based study

(2011)
Background The high mortality of hip fracture patients is well documented, but sex- and cause-specific mortality after hip fracture has not been extensively studied. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mortality and cause of death in patients after hip fracture surgery and to compare their mortality and cause of death to those in the general population. Methods Records of 428 consecutive hip fracture patients were collected on a population-basis and data on the general population comprising all Finns 65 years of age or older were collected on a cohort-basis. Cause of death was classified as follows: malignant neoplasms, dementia, circulatory disease, respiratory disease, digestive system disease, and other. Results Mean follow-up was 3.7 years (range 0-9 years). Overall 1-year postoperative mortality was 27.3% and mortality after hip fracture at the end of the follow-up was 79.0%. During the follow-up, age-adjusted mortality after hip fracture surgery was higher in men than in women with hazard ratio (HR) 1.55 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.00. Among hip surgery patients, the most common causes of death were circulatory diseases, followed by dementia and Alzheimer's disease. After hip fracture, men were more likely than women to die from respiratory disease, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory disease. During the follow-up, all-cause age- and sex-standardized mortality after hip fracture was 3-fold higher than that of the general population and included every cause-of-death category. Conclusion During the study period, the risk of mortality in hip fracture patients was 3-fold higher than that in the general population and included every major cause of death.
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### Author and article information

###### Journal
4242696
10.2147/TCRM.S72456

Medicine

vertebral fracture, hip fracture, osteoporosis