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      Global Carbon Budget 2017

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          Abstract

          Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the <q>global carbon budget</q> – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from fossil fuels and industry (<i>E</i><sub>FF</sub>) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (<i>E</i><sub>LUC</sub>), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (<i>G</i><sub>ATM</sub>) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO<sub>2</sub> sink (<i>S</i><sub>OCEAN</sub>) and terrestrial CO<sub>2</sub> sink (<i>S</i><sub>LAND</sub>) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (<i>B</i><sub>IM</sub>), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1<i>σ</i>. For the last decade available (2007–2016), <i>E</i><sub>FF</sub> was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, <i>E</i><sub>LUC</sub> 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, <i>G</i><sub>ATM</sub> 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, <i>S</i><sub>OCEAN</sub> 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, and <i>S</i><sub>LAND</sub> 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, with a budget imbalance <i>B</i><sub>IM</sub> of 0.6 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup> indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in <i>E</i><sub>FF</sub> was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>. Also for 2016, <i>E</i><sub>LUC</sub> was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, <i>G</i><sub>ATM</sub> was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, <i>S</i><sub>OCEAN</sub> was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, and <i>S</i><sub>LAND</sub> was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr<sup>−1</sup>, with a small <i>B</i><sub>IM</sub> of −0.3 GtC. <i>G</i><sub>ATM</sub> continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007–2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small <i>S</i><sub>LAND</sub> consistent with El Niño conditions. The global atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration reached 402.8 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6–9 months indicate a renewed growth in <i>E</i><sub>FF</sub> of +2.0 % (range of 0.8 to 3.0 %) based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP) corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from <a href="https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017</a> (GCP, 2017).

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          On the Temperature Dependence of Soil Respiration

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            Global Carbon Budget 2016

            Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry ( E FF ) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change ( E LUC ), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth ( G ATM ) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink ( S OCEAN ) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in S OCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink ( S LAND ) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 σ , reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006–2015), E FF was 9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr −1 , E LUC 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr −1 , G ATM 4.5 ± 0.1 GtC yr −1 , S OCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr −1 , and S LAND 3.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr −1 . For year 2015 alone, the growth in E FF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr −1 , showing a slowdown in growth of these emissions compared to the average growth of 1.8 % yr −1 that took place during 2006–2015. Also, for 2015, E LUC was 1.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr −1 , G ATM was 6.3 ± 0.2 GtC yr −1 , S OCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr −1 , and S LAND was 1.9 ± 0.9 GtC yr −1 . G ATM was higher in 2015 compared to the past decade (2006–2015), reflecting a smaller S LAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration reached 399.4 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2015. For 2016, preliminary data indicate the continuation of low growth in E FF with +0.2 % (range of −1.0 to +1.8 %) based on national emissions projections for China and USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. In spite of the low growth of E FF in 2016, the growth rate in atmospheric CO 2 concentration is expected to be relatively high because of the persistence of the smaller residual terrestrial sink ( S LAND ) in response to El Niño conditions of 2015–2016. From this projection of E FF and assumed constant E LUC for 2016, cumulative emissions of CO 2 will reach 565 ± 55 GtC (2075 ± 205 GtCO 2 ) for 1870–2016, about 75 % from E FF and 25 % from E LUC . This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center ( doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2016 ).
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              The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description – Part 1: Energy and water fluxes

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Earth System Science Data
                Earth Syst. Sci. Data
                Copernicus GmbH
                1866-3516
                2018
                March 12 2018
                : 10
                : 1
                : 405-448
                Article
                10.5194/essd-10-405-2018
                © 2018
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