This monographic review of the Nevrorthidae Nakahara, 1915, covers all 19 validly described, extant species worldwide that belong to one of the smallest families of the order Neuroptera. The family embraces four genera: Nevrorthus Costa, 1863 (with five species occurring in the Mediterranean region), Austroneurorthus Nakahara, 1958 (with two species restricted to eastern Australia), Nipponeurorthus Nakahara, 1958 (with 11 species from eastern Asia: Japanese islands, mainland China, Taiwan), and Sinoneurorthus Liu, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 2012 (with one species recorded from mainland China). A comprehensive taxonomical treatment of all extant taxa is presented, including the scant available biological data. Distribution maps for all species are provided. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological data from both extant and extinct taxa was performed. Austroneurorthus, together with Nevrorthus and some Eocene Baltic amber genera, form a monophylum. The disjunct distribution of modern nevrorthid genera demonstrates the relictual nature of the family and points to a historical biogeography that could have led to the formation of the present distribution pattern. Future discovery of fossil material might substantiate these claims. Sonnet for a Vulnerable Creature Is the Climate still fine? Still clean, the Riverine? Ruined rivulets run dry Fossils – tho’ living – may Die.