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      Management of respiratory motion in PET/computed tomography: the state of the art

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          Abstract

          Combined PET/computed tomography (CT) is of value in cancer diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment planning. For cancers located in the thorax or abdomen, the patient’s breathing causes artifacts and errors in PET and CT images. Many different approaches for artifact avoidance or correction have been developed; most are based on gated acquisition and synchronization between the respiratory signal and PET acquisition. The respiratory signal is usually produced by an external sensor that tracks a physiological characteristic related to the patient’s breathing. Respiratory gating is a compensation technique in which time or amplitude binning is used to exclude the motion in reconstructed PET images. Although this technique is performed in routine clinical practice, it fails to adequately correct for respiratory motion because each gate can mix several tissue positions. Researchers have suggested either selecting PET events from gated acquisitions or performing several PET acquisitions (corresponding to a breath-hold CT position). However, the PET acquisition time must be increased if adequate counting statistics are to be obtained in the different gates after binning. Hence, other researchers have assessed correction techniques that take account of all the counting statistics (without increasing the acquisition duration) and integrate motion information before, during, or after the reconstruction process. Here, we provide an overview of how motion is managed to overcome respiratory motion in PET/CT images.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Maximum likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography.

           Larry Shepp,  Y Vardi (1981)
          Previous models for emission tomography (ET) do not distinguish the physics of ET from that of transmission tomography. We give a more accurate general mathematical model for ET where an unknown emission density lambda = lambda(x, y, z) generates, and is to be reconstructed from, the number of counts n(*)(d) in each of D detector units d. Within the model, we give an algorithm for determining an estimate lambdainsertion mark of lambda which maximizes the probability p(n(*)|lambda) of observing the actual detector count data n(*) over all possible densities lambda. Let independent Poisson variables n(b) with unknown means lambda(b), b = 1, ..., B represent the number of unobserved emissions in each of B boxes (pixels) partitioning an object containing an emitter. Suppose each emission in box b is detected in detector unit d with probability p(b, d), d = 1, ..., D with p(b,d) a one-step transition matrix, assumed known. We observe the total number n(*) = n(*)(d) of emissions in each detector unit d and want to estimate the unknown lambda = lambda(b), b = 1, ..., B. For each lambda, the observed data n(*) has probability or likelihood p(n(*)|lambda). The EM algorithm of mathematical statistics starts with an initial estimate lambda(0) and gives the following simple iterative procedure for obtaining a new estimate lambdainsertion mark(new), from an old estimate lambdainsertion mark(old), to obtain lambdainsertion mark(k), k = 1, 2, ..., lambdainsertion mark(new)(b)= lambdainsertion mark(old)(b)Sum of (n(*)p(b,d) from d=1 to D/Sum of lambdainsertion mark()old(b('))p(b('),d) from b(')=1 to B), b=1,...B.
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            Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data.

            The authors define ordered subset processing for standard algorithms (such as expectation maximization, EM) for image restoration from projections. Ordered subsets methods group projection data into an ordered sequence of subsets (or blocks). An iteration of ordered subsets EM is defined as a single pass through all the subsets, in each subset using the current estimate to initialize application of EM with that data subset. This approach is similar in concept to block-Kaczmarz methods introduced by Eggermont et al. (1981) for iterative reconstruction. Simultaneous iterative reconstruction (SIRT) and multiplicative algebraic reconstruction (MART) techniques are well known special cases. Ordered subsets EM (OS-EM) provides a restoration imposing a natural positivity condition and with close links to the EM algorithm. OS-EM is applicable in both single photon (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). In simulation studies in SPECT, the OS-EM algorithm provides an order-of-magnitude acceleration over EM, with restoration quality maintained.
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              Bayesian reconstructions from emission tomography data using a modified EM algorithm.

               P.J. Green (1990)
              A novel method of reconstruction from single-photon emission computerized tomography data is proposed. This method builds on the expectation-maximization (EM) approach to maximum likelihood reconstruction from emission tomography data, but aims instead at maximum posterior probability estimation, which takes account of prior belief about smoothness in the isotope concentration. A novel modification to the EM algorithm yields a practical method. The method is illustrated by an application to data from brain scans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucl Med Commun
                Nucl Med Commun
                MNM
                Nuclear Medicine Communications
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
                0143-3636
                1473-5628
                February 2014
                02 January 2014
                : 35
                : 2
                : 113-122
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amiens University Medical Centre
                [b ]Jules Verne University of Picardy, Amiens
                [c ]Nuclear Medicine Department, Henri Becquerel Center and Rouen University Hospital, Rouen
                [d ]QuantIF-LITIS laboratory, EA4108, University of Rouen, France
                Article
                10.1097/MNM.0000000000000048
                3868022
                © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

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